Hypothalamus

The hypothalamus (from Greek ὑπό = under and θάλαμος = room, chamber) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions. One of the most important functions of the hypothalamus is to link the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis).

The hypothalamus is located below the thalamus, just above the brain stem. In the terminology of neuroanatomy, it forms the ventral part of the diencephalon. All vertebrate brains contain a hypothalamus. In humans, it is roughly the size of an almond.

The hypothalamus is responsible for certain metabolic processes and other activities of the autonomic nervous system. It synthesizes and secretes certain neurohormones, often called hypothalamic-releasing hormones, and these in turn stimulate or inhibit the secretion of pituitary hormones. The hypothalamus controls body temperature, hunger, thirst, fatigue, sleep, and circadian cycles.

Read more about Hypothalamus:  Structure and Inputs, Outputs, Control of Food Intake, Sexual Dimorphism, Fear Processing

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Poor Ovarian Reserve - Related Animal Research
... exhaustion of ovarian follicles, there is some evidence that a defect in the hypothalamus is critical in the transition from regular to irregular cycles ... Also, electrical stimulation of the hypothalamus is capable of restoring reproductive function in aged animals ... Due to the complex interrelationship among the hypothalamus, pituitary and ovaries (HPO axis) defects in the functioning of one level can cause defects on the other levels ...
Jaak Panksepp - Books
... Handbook of the Hypothalamus Vol ... Behavioral Studies of the Hypothalamus ... Handbook of the Hypothalamus Vol ...
Lateral Hypothalamus
... The lateral hypothalamus or lateral hypothalamic area is a part of the hypothalamus ... Stimulating the lateral hypothalamus causes a desire to eat, while stimulating the ventromedial hypothalamus causes a desire to stop eating ...
Hypothalamus - Fear Processing - Social Defeat
... Likewise, the hypothalamus has a role in social defeat nuclei in medial zone are also mobilized during an encounter with an aggressive conspecific ...
Standard Metabolic Rate - Physiology
... responsible for regulating metabolism is the hypothalamus ... The hypothalamus is located on the diencephalon and forms the floor and part of the lateral walls of the third ventricle of the cerebrum ... The chief functions of the hypothalamus are control and integration of activities of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) The ANS regulates contraction of ...