The Gaza–Israel conflict is an ongoing dispute within the frame of the long-term Israeli–Palestinian conflict in the territory of the Gaza Strip. Palestinian active resistance to military occupation in Gaza was escalated in the Gaza territory, following the overwhelming election to government of the Islamic political party Hamas in 2005 and 2006. The conflict in its current form is ongoing since the split of the Palestinian Authority and the Hamas Government in Gaza in 2006 and the ousting of Fatah. Palestinian rocket attacks on Israel and Israel's blockade of Gaza have exacerbated the conflict.
Under its disengagement plan, Israel retained exclusive control over Gaza's airspace, continued to patrol and monitor the external land perimeter of the Gaza Strip, with the exception of its southernmost border (where Egypt retained control of the border and border crossings were supervised by European monitors), and continued to monitor and blockade Gaza's coastline. Israel largely provides for and controls Gaza's water supply, electricity and communications infrastructure. According to Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International, Israel remains an occupying power under international law. The United Nations has stated that under resolutions of both the General Assembly and the Security Council it regards Gaza to be part of the "Occupied Palestinian Territories".
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