Foreign Relations of Armenia - Countries With Diplomatic Relations - Europe

Europe

Further information: Armenia–European Union relations
Country Formal relations began Notes
Albania 1993-02-18 See Armenia–Albania relations
  • Armenia is represented in Albania through its embassy in Athens, (Greece).
  • Albania is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Athens, (Greece).
Andorra 2003-11-18 See Armenia–Andorra relations
  • Armenia is represented in Andorra through its embassy in Paris, (France).
  • Andorra is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Paris, (France).
Austria 1992-01-24 See Armenia–Austria relations
  • Armenia has an embassy in Vienna.
  • Austria has an honorary consulate in Yerevan.
Azerbaijan No diplomatic relations See Armenia–Azerbaijan relations, Nagorno-Karabakh War, Khojaly Massacre, Khachkar destruction in Nakhchivan

The two nations have fought two wars in 1918–20 (Armenian–Azerbaijani War) and in 1988–94 (Nagorno-Karabakh War), in the past century, with last one ended with provisional cease fire agreement signed in Bishkek. There are no formal diplomatic relations between the two countries, because of the of the ongoing Nagorno-Karabakh conflict and dispute. In 2008, Azerbaijani president Ilham Aliyev declared that “Nagorno Karabakh will never be independent; the position is backed by international mediators as well; Armenia has to accept the reality” and that “in 1918, Yerevan was granted to the Armenians. It was a great mistake. The khanate of Iravan was the Azeri territory, the Armenians were guests here”.

The neighboring nations of Armenia and Azerbaijan have had formal governmental relations since 1918. The two nations have fought two wars in 1918–20 and in 1988–94 in the past century, with last one ended with provisional cease fire agreement signed in Bishkek. In 2008, Azerbaijani president Ilham Aliyev declared that “Nagorno Karabakh will never be independent; the position is backed by international mediators as well; Armenia has to accept the reality” and that “in 1918, Yerevan was granted to the Armenians. It was a great mistake. The khanate of Iravan was the Azeri territory, the Armenians were guests here”.

During the Soviet period, many Armenians and Azeris lived side by side in peace. However, when Mikhail Gorbachev introduced the policies of Glasnost and Perestroika, the majority of Armenians from the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast (NKAO) of the Azerbaijan SSR began a movement to unify with the Armenian SSR. In 1988, the Armenians of Karabakh voted to secede and join Armenia. This, along with sporadic massacres in Azerbaijan against Armenians resulted in the conflict that became known as the Nagorno-Karabakh War. The violence resulted in de facto Armenian control of former NKAO and seven surrounding Azerbaijani regions which was effectively halted when both sides agrees to observe a cease-fire which has been in effect since May 1994, and in late 1995 both also agreed to mediation of the OSCE Minsk Group. The Minsk Group is currently co-chaired by the U.S., France and Russia, and comprises Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, and several Western European nations. Despite the cease fire, up to 40 clashes are reported along the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict lines of control each year.

The two countries are still technically at war. Citizens of the Republic of Armenia, as well as citizens of any other country who are of Armenian descent, are forbidden entry to the Republic of Azerbaijan. If a person's passport shows any evidence of travel to Nagorno-Karabakh, they are forbidden entry to the Republic of Azerbaijan.

In 2008, in what became known as the 2008 Mardakert Skirmishes, Armenia and Azerbaijan clashed over Nagorno-Karabakh. The fighting between the two sides was brief, with few casualties on either side.

Belarus 1993-06-12 See Armenia–Belarus relations
  • Armenia has an embassy in Minsk.
  • Belarus has an embassy in Yerevan.
Belgium 1992-03-10 See Armenia–Belgium relations
  • Armenia has an embassy in Brussels.
  • Belgium is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Moscow.
Bosnia and Herzegovina 1997-07-29 See Armenia–Bosnia and Herzegovina relations
  • Bosnia is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Moscow.
Bulgaria 1992-01-18 See Armenia–Bulgaria relations
  • Armenia has an embassy in Sofia.
  • Since 19 December 1999, Bulgaria has an embassy in Yerevan.
  • Both countries are full members of the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation.
  • There are around 30,000 people of Armenian descent living in Bulgaria.
Croatia 1994-07-08 See Armenia–Croatia relations
  • Armenia is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Rome (Italy).
  • Croatia is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Athens (Greece) and honorary consulate in Yerevan.
Cyprus 1992-03-18 See Armenia–Cyprus relations
  • Cyprus was the second country to recognise the Armenian Genocide, on 24 April 1975.
  • Armenia is represented in Cyprus through its embassy in Athens (Greece).
  • Cyprus is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Moscow (Russia), and through an honorary consulate in Yerevan.
  • There are over 3.500 people of Armenian descent living in Cyprus.
  • Vahan Ovanesyan of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation visited Cyprus on 24 January 2001 to take part in celebrations of the 110th anniversary of the federation.
  • Cyprus Foreign Ministry: list of bilateral treaties with Armenia
Czech Republic 1992-03-30 See Armenia–Czech Republic relations
  • Armenia is represented in Czech Republic through its embassy in Prague.
  • The Czech Republic is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Yerevan.
  • There are around 12,000 people of Armenian descent living in the Czech Republic.
Denmark 1992-01-14 See Armenia–Denmark relations
  • Armenia is represented in Denmank through its embassy in Kopenhagen, Denmark.
  • Denmark is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Kiev, Ukraine.
Estonia 1992-08-23

See Armenia–Estonia relations

  • Armenia is represented in Estonia through its embassy in Warsaw (Poland) and an honorary consulate in Tallinn.
  • Estonia is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Athens (Greece) and through an honorary consulate in Yerevan.
  • Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Armenia
Finland 1992-03-25

See Armenia–Finland relations

  • Before 1918, both countries were part of the Russian Empire. Finland recognised Armenia on 30 December 1991. Armenia is represented in Finland by a non-resident ambassador (based in Yerevan at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs). Finland is represented in Armenia by a non resident ambassador (based in Helsinki at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs) and an honorary consulate in Yerevan. Around 1,000 people of Armenian descent live in Finland.
  • Finnish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Armenia
France 1992-02-24 See Armenia–France relations

Franco-Armenian relations have existed since the French and the Armenians established contact in the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia and are close to this day. 2006 was proclaimed the Year of Armenia in France.

Georgia 1992-07-17 See Armenia–Georgia relations

Armenians and Georgians have a lot in common. Both are ancient Christian civilizations with their own distinct alphabets. Both use the terms "Apostolic" and "Orthodox" in the full titles of their respective churches. They also use the term "Catholicos" to refer to their church patriarchs. Despite all this, however, Armenians and Georgians have tended to have a tenuous relationship (at times, sharing close bonds while at other times regarding each other as rivals).

Today, relations with Georgia are of particular importance for Armenia because, under the economic blockade imposed by Turkey and Azerbaijan due to the ongoing Karabakh conflict, Georgia offers Armenia its only land connection with Europe and access to its Black Sea ports. However, because of Armenia's reliance on Russia and Georgia, both of whom fought the 2008 South Ossetia war and severed diplomatic and economic relations as a result; and as 70% of Armenia's imports entered via Georgia especially from Russia which has imposed an economic blockade on Georgia, Armenia also has been indirectly affected from this blockade as well. The development of close relations between Turkey and Georgia (such as the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline and South Caucasus natural gas pipeline) have also weighed on the mutual relations and lead to the prevention of the country recognizing the Armenian Genocide. On occasion, however, Georgian politicians have sympathized with the Armenian cause. For example, on 20 March 2006, Georgian Ambassador to Armenia Revaz Gachechiladze stated, "We sympathize with the sister nation but taking decisions of the kind we should take into account the international situation. When the time comes Georgia will do everything within the limits of the possible for the recognition of the Armenian Genocide by the international community including Georgia." However, Armenian-Georgian relations have begun to improve. On 10 May 2006, Armenia and Georgia agreed on the greater part of the lines of the state border between the two countries. The Javakheti region in southern Georgia contains a large Armenian population and although there have been local civic organizations (such as United Javakhk) pushing for autonomy, there has been no violence between Armenians and Georgians in the area.

Germany 1992-01 See Armenia–Germany relations
  • Armenia has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Yerevan.
Greece 1992-01-20 See Armenia–Greece relations

Greece was one of the first countries to recognize Armenia's independence on 21 September 1991, and one of those that have officially recognized the Armenian Genocide. Since the independence of Armenia the two countries have been partners within the framework of international organizations (United Nations, OSCE, Council of Europe, BSEC), whilst Greece firmly supports the community programs aimed at further developing relations between the EU and Armenia.

Continuous visits of the highest level have shown that both countries want to continue to improve the levels of friendship and cooperation (Visit by the President of Armenia Levon Ter-Petrossian to Greece in 1996, visit by the President of the Hellenic Republic Costis Stephanopoulos in 1999, visit by the President of Armenia Robert Kocharyan to Greece in 2000 and 2005 and visit by Greek president Karolos Papoulias to Armenia in June 2007).

Greece is, after Russia, the major military partner of Armenia. Armenian officers are trained in Greek military academies, and various technical assistance is supplied by Greece. Since 2003, an Armenian platoon has been deployed in Kosovo as part of KFOR, where they operate as a part of the Greek battalion of KFOR.

Holy See 1992-5-23 See Armenia–Holy See relations
Hungary 01992-02-2626 February 1992—02012-08-3131 August 2012
  • Armenia was represented in Hungary through its embassy in Vienna (Austria) and an honorary consulate in Budapest.
  • Hungary was represented in Armenia through its embassy in Tbilisi(Georgia) and an honorary consulate in Yerevan.
  • There are around 15,000 people of Armenian descent living in Hungary.
Iceland See Armenia–Iceland relations
Ireland 1996-06-13 See Armenia–Ireland relations
  • Ireland recognized Armenia's independence in December 1991.
  • Armenia is represented in Ireland through its embassy in London and through an honorary consulate in Dublin.
  • Ireland is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Sofia (Bulgaria) and through an honorary consulate in Yerevan.
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe.
Italy 1993-05-12 See Armenia–Italy relations
  • Armenia has an embassy in Rome.
  • Italy has an embassy in Yerevan and an honorary consulate in Gyumri.
  • Italy has recognized the Armenian Genocide in 2000.
  • There are around 4,000 people of Armenian descent living in Italy.
Latvia 1992-08-22 See Armenia–Latvia relations
  • Armenia is represented in Latvia through its embassy in Warsaw (Poland).
  • Latvia is represented in Armenia through a non-resident ambassador based in Riga (at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs) and through an honorary consulate in Yerevan.
  • There are around 5,000 people of Armenian descent living in Latvia.
  • Latvian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Armenia
  • Latvian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: direction if the Latvian representation in Armenia
Liechtenstein 2008-05-07 See Armenia–Liechtenstein relations
Lithuania 1991-11-21 See Armenia–Lithuania relations
  • Armenia is represented in Lithuania through its embassy in Warsaw (Poland).
  • Lithuania has an embassy in Yerevan.
  • There are around 2,500 people of Armenian descent living in Lithuania.
  • Lithuanian Ministry of Foreign affairs: list of bilateral treaties with Armenia (in Lithuanian only)
Luxembourg 1992-06-11 See Armenia–Luxembourg relations
  • Armenia is represented in Luxembourg through its embassy in Brussels, Belgium, and an honorary consulate in Luxembourg.
Macedonia 1993-04-27 See Armenia–Macedonia relations
Malta 1993-05-27 See Armenia–Malta relations
Moldova 1992-05 See Armenia–Moldova relations
  • Armenia is represented in Moldova through its embassy in Kiev (Ukraine).
  • Moldova is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Moscow (Russia).
  • There are around 8,000 people of Armenina descent living in Moldova.
  • Armenian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: presentation of the Moldovan ambassador’s credentials to the Armenian Foreign Minister
  • Moldovan Ministry of Foreign Affairs: list of bilateral treaties with Armenia
Monaco 2008-10 See Armenia–Monaco relations
Montenegro See Armenia–Montenegro relations
Netherlands 1992-01-30 See Armenia–Netherlands relations
  • Armenia has an embassy in Amsterdam and 2 honorary consulates (in Hilversum and in The Hague )
  • The Netherlands have an embassy in Yerevan and 1 honorary consulates (in Gyumri )
  • There are around 8,000 people of Armenian descent living in the Netherlands.
  • The Netherlands is also one of the countries who has recognized the Armenian genocide.
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe. The Netherlands is a European Union member and Armenia is a candidate.
  • Both countries have the worlds third largest trade of diamonds and second largest trade in between the countries. Both The Netherlands and Armenia have the worlds top share in the diamond industry.
  • Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Armenia (in Dutch only)
Norway 1992-06-05 See Armenia–Norway relations
Poland 1992-02-26 See Armenia–Poland relations
  • Armenia has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Yerevan.
  • See also Armenians in Poland
Portugal 1992-05-25 See Armenia–Portugal relations

Armenia has represented in Portugal through its embassy in Rome (Italy). Portugal is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Moscow (Russia).

One of the most notable Armenians who resided in Portugal was Calouste Gulbenkian. He was a wealthy Armenian businessman and philantropist, who made Lisbon the headquarters for his businesses. He established the international charity, the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation in Lisbon. He also founded the Museu Calouste Gulbenkian in Lisbon.

Romania 1991-11-17 See Armenia–Romania relations
  • Armenia has an embassy in Bucharest.
  • Romania has an embassy in Yerevan.
Russia 1992-04-03 See Armenia–Russia relations

Armenia's most notable recent foreign policy success came with the 29 August treaty with Russia on friendship, cooperation and mutual assistance, in which Moscow committed itself to the defense of Armenia should it be attacked by a third party. Russia is the key regional security player, and has proved a valuable historical ally for Armenia. Although it appeared as a response to Aliyev's US trip, the treaty had probably long been under development. However, it is clear from the wider context of Armenian foreign policy that—while Yerevan welcomes the Russian security guarantee—the country does not want to rely exclusively on Moscow, nor to become part of a confrontation between Russian and US-led alliances in the Transcaucasus.

San Marino 2006-03-21 See Armenia–San Marino relations
Serbia 1993-01-14 See Armenia–Serbia relations
  • Armenia is represented in Serbia through its embassy in Athens (Greece).
  • Serbia is also represented in Armenia through its embassy in Athens.
  • Serbian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Armenia
Slovakia 1993-01-14 See Armenia–Slovakia relations
  • Armenia is represented in Slovakia through its embassy in Vienna (Austria).
  • Slovakia is represented in Armenia through a non resident ambassador based in Bratislava (in the Foreign Ministry).
  • Both countries are full members of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe and of the Council of Europe.
  • Between 24–28 February 2008, Slovak Foreign Minister Ján Kubiš made an official visit to Armenia.
Slovenia 1994-06-27 See Armenia–Slovenia relations
Spain 1992-01-27 See Armenia–Spain relations
  • Armenia has an embassy in Madrid and there is an 2 honorary consulates in Valencia and Barcelona.
  • Spain is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Moscow (Russia) and an honorary consulate in Yerevan.
  • Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperations about the relation with Armenia (in Spanish only)
Sweden 1992-07-10 See Armenia–Sweden relations
  • Armenia is represented in Sweden through a non-resident ambassador based in Yerevan (in the Foreign Affairs Ministry).
  • Sweden is represented in Armenia through the Embassy of Sweden in Tbilisi, Georgia and an honorary consulate in Yerevan.
  • Swedish Ministry of Foreign Affairs: informations about the Swedish ambassador to Armenia
Switzerland 1991-12-23 See Armenia–Switzerland relations
  • The Armenian ambassador to Switzerland and the Swiss ambassador to Armenia (based in Yerevan, Armenia) were both accredited in 2011.
  • The Armenian ambassador to Switzerland is based in Geneva, in the Armenian representation to the United Nations.
  • Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs about relations with Armenia
Turkey No formal diplomatic relations See Armenia–Turkey relations

Turkey was one of the first countries to recognize Armenia's independence in 1991. Despite this, for most of the 20th century and early 21st century, relations remain tense and there are no formal diplomatic relations between the two countries for numerous reasons. Some bones of contention include the unresolved Karabakh conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan (which has resulted in Turkey imposing a blockade on Armenia that is still in effect today), the treatment of Armenians in Turkey, the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline, and the Armenian claim of Turkey's holding of historic Armenian lands (ceded to them in the Treaty of Kars, a treaty which Armenia refuses to recognize to this day since it was signed between the Soviet Union and Turkey, and not between Armenia and Turkey proper). At the forefront of all disputes, however, is the issue surrounding the Armenian Genocide. The killing and deportation of between one and one-and-a-half million Armenians from eastern Anatolian lands of the Ottoman Empire orchestrated by the Young Turks is a taboo subject in Turkey itself as the Turkish government refuses to acknowledge that a genocide ever happened. However, since Turkey has become a candidate to join the European Union, limited discussion of the event is now taking place in Turkey. Some in the European Parliament have even suggested that one of the provisions for Turkey to join the E.U. should be the full recognition of the event as genocide.

On 5 June 2005, Armenian President Robert Kocharian announced that he was ready to "continue dialogue with Azerbaijan for the settlement of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict and with Turkey on establishing relations without any preconditions." Armenia has also stated that as a legal successor to the Armenian SSR, it is loyal to the Treaty of Kars and all agreements inherited by the former Soviet Armenian government. Yet Turkey continues to lay preconditions on relations, insisting that Armenia abandon its efforts to have the Genocide recognized, which official Yerevan is not willing to do.

In the wake of the 2008 South Ossetia war between Russia and Georgia, Armenia and Turkey have shown signs of an inclination to reconsider their relationship. According to The Economist magazine, 70% of Armenia's imports enter via Georgia. Because of the apparently belligerent posture of the Russian state, economic ties with Turkey appear especially attractive.

Ukraine 1992-12-25 See Armenia–Ukraine relations

Armenian-Ukrainian relations have lasted for centuries and today are cordial.

United Kingdom 1992-01-20 See Armenia–United Kingdom relations
  • The United Kingdom recognised Armenia on 31 December 1991.
  • The first Embassy of the Republic of Armenia in Europe was established in London in October 1992.
  • Since 1995, the United Kingdom has an embassy in Yerevan.
  • The two countries maintain collaborative and friendly relations, however the United Kingdom does not recognize the Armenian Genocide, as it considers that the evidence is not clear enough to respectively consider "the terrible events that afflicted the Ottoman Armenian population at the beginning of the last century" genocide under the 1948 UN convention. The British government states the "massacres were an appalling tragedy" and states that this was the view of the government during that period. Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland consider it to be a genocide, and there is a memorial in Cardiff, Wales.
  • British Foreign and Commonwealth Office about relations with Armenia

Read more about this topic:  Foreign Relations Of Armenia, Countries With Diplomatic Relations

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