Ecuador

Ecuador (i/ˈɛkwədɔr/ E-kwə-dawr), officially the Republic of Ecuador (Spanish: República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator") is a representative democratic republic in South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and by the Pacific Ocean to the west. It is one of only two countries in South America, along with Chile, that do not have a border with Brazil. The country also includes the Galápagos Islands in the Pacific, about 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) west of the mainland.

The main spoken language in Ecuador is Spanish (94% of the population). Languages of official use in native communities include Quichua, Shuar, and 11 other languages. Ecuador has an area of 275,830 km2 (106,500 sq mi). Its capital city is Quito, which was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in the 1970s for having the best preserved and least altered historic center in Latin America. The country's largest city is Guayaquil. With its international port and tuna fishing industry, Manta is the third most important city in the country economically. The historic center of Cuenca, the third largest city in the country, was also declared a World Heritage Site in 1999, for being an outstanding example of a planned inland Spanish style colonial city in the Americas. Ecuador is also home to a great variety of species, many of them endemic, like those of the Galápagos islands. This species diversity makes Ecuador one of the 17 megadiverse countries in the world. The new constitution of 2008 is the first in the world to recognize legally enforceable Rights of Nature, or ecosystem rights.

Ecuador is a presidential republic and became independent in 1830, after having been part of the Spanish colonial empire, and for a much shorter time of the republic of Gran Colombia. It is a medium-income country with an HDI score of 0.720 (2011).

Read more about Ecuador:  Government and Politics, Administrative Divisions, Military, Geography, Economy, Industry, Transport, Demographics, Culture, Health, Education, Sciences and Research

Other articles related to "ecuador":

Ecuador - Sciences and Research
... The major areas of scientific research in Ecuador have been in the medical fields, tropical and infectious diseases treatments, agricultural engineering, pharmaceutical research ... Being a small country and consumer of foreign technology, Ecuador has favored the research supported by entrepreneurship in information technology ...
Ecuadorian Literature - History
... Ecuador was inhabited with numerous civilizations which constructed the ethnic cultural background of Ecuador years before the Inca Empire ... Many civilizations rose throughout Ecuador, such as the Chorre and the Valdivia, the latter of which spans its existence before any civilization in the Americas ... The most notable groups that existed in Ecuador before, and during the Inca conquest were the Quitus (near present-day Quito), the Cañari (in present-day Cuenca), and the Las ...
Provincial Integration Movement
... Integración Provincial) is a progressive political party in Ecuador ... Political parties in Ecuador Political parties represented in the National Assembly (137 seats) PAIS Alliance (100) Creating Opportunities (11) Social ...
Ecuadorian Literature
... The majority of Ecuador's population is mestizo, a mixture of both European (Andalusian and Castilian Spaniard) and Amerindian ancestry ... The other 10% of Ecuador's population is of European descent, predominantly from Spain, Italy, Lebanon, France and Germany ... Ecuador can be split up into four parts, geographically the Costa (coast), the Sierra (highlands), and El Oriente (the east which includes the Amazonic region) ...
Ecuadorian Centavo Coins
... centavo coins were introduced in 2000 when Ecuador converted its currency from the sucre to the U.S. 50-cent piece is rarely used.) They circulate within Ecuador alongside coins and banknotes from the USA ... $1 coins are rarely used domestically, they are commonly used in Ecuador ...