DNA Damage Theory of Aging - Age-associated Accumulation of DNA Damage and Decline in Gene Expression - Brain

Brain

Further information: Aging brain

The adult brain is composed in large part of terminally differentiated non-dividing neurons. Many of the conspicuous features of aging reflect a decline in neuronal function. Accumulation of DNA damage with age in the mammalian brain has been reported during the period 1971 to the present in at least 29 studies, too many to describe here. A review of the role of DNA damage in aging, including a comprehensive summary of the studies showing DNA damage accumulation with age in brain, muscle, liver and kidney, was presented by Bernstein et al. (2008). Here, we mention only some recent studies involving rodents plus one human study. Rutten et al. (2007) showed that single-strand breaks accumulate in the mouse brain with age. Sen et al. (2007) showed that DNA damages which block the polymerase chain reaction in rat brain accumulate with age. Swain and Rao (2011) observed marked increases in several types of DNA damages in aging rat brain, including single-strand breaks, double-strand breaks and modified bases (8-OHdG and uracil). Wolf et al. (2005) also showed that the oxidative DNA damage 8-OHdG accumulates in rat brain with age. Similarly, it was shown that as humans age from 48–97 years, 8-OHdG accumulates in the brain (Mecocci et al., 1993).

Decrements in function were noted in aging human brain, where transcription of a set of evaluated genes declines with age from 40 to 106 years (Lu et al., 2004). These genes play central roles in synaptic plasticity, vesicular transport and mitochondrial function. In the brain, promoters of genes with reduced expression have markedly increased DNA damage (Lu et al., 2004). In cultured human neurons, these gene promoters are selectively damaged by oxidative stress. Thus Lu et al. (2004) concluded that DNA damage may reduce the expression of selectively vulnerable genes involved in learning, memory and neuronal survival, initiating a program of brain aging that starts early in adult life.

Read more about this topic:  DNA Damage Theory Of Aging, Age-associated Accumulation of DNA Damage and Decline in Gene Expression

Other articles related to "brain":

Brain Drain - Preventative Measures
... For instance, in African countries, the health systems have been severely affected by brain drain, so various measures have been suggested and tried to limit the migration of health ... have argued the country should cultivate a sense of security and hope among the elite to curb brain drain because people are not so confident of their countries ... And in India, although suffering severe brain drain every year, the Indian government has not to adopted strict policies because they believe that the overseas talent will eventually ...
Alan Civil
... He studied the instrument under Aubrey Brain, father of Dennis Brain ... Civil was engaged by Thomas Beecham to play second horn to Dennis Brain in the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, and when Brain left for the Philharmonia, Civil took over leadership of the section ... joined the Philharmonia himself, becoming principal horn player when Brain died in a car crash in 1957 ...
Brain Drain
... Human capital flight, more commonly referred to as "brain drain", is the large-scale emigration of a large group of individuals with technical skills or knowledge ... Brain drain is usually regarded as an economic cost, since emigrants usually take with them the fraction of value of their training sponsored by the ... Brain drain is often associated with de-skilling of emigrants in their country of destination, while their country of emigration experiences the draining of skilled ...
Brain - History
... divided as to whether the seat of the soul lies in the brain or heart ... the heart, and thought that the function of the brain was merely to cool the blood ... Hippocrates, the "father of medicine", came down unequivocally in favor of the brain ...
Positive Psychology - Methods - Neuroscientific Approach
... Neuroscience and brain imaging has shown increasing potential for helping science understand happiness and sadness ... their findings that depression can be diagnosed very accurately just by looking at fMRI brain scans ... scientists may be able to use methods like brain scans to tell us more about all the different ways of being "happy" ...

Famous quotes containing the word brain:

    One of the most singular facts about the unwritten history of this country is the consummate ability with which Southern influence, Southern ideas and Southern ideals, have from the very beginning even up to the present day, dictated to and domineered over the brain and sinew of this nation.
    Anna Julia Cooper (1859–1964)

    I think “taste” is a social concept and not an artistic one. I’m willing to show good taste, if I can, in somebody else’s living room, but our reading life is too short for a writer to be in any way polite. Since his words enter into another’s brain in silence and intimacy, he should be as honest and explicit as we are with ourselves.
    John Updike (b. 1932)

    ...here he is, fully alive, and it is hard to picture him fully dead. Death is thirty-three hours away and here we are talking about the brain size of birds and bloodhounds and hunting in the woods. You can only attend to death for so long before the life force sucks you right in again.
    Helen Prejean (b. 1940)