Connection To Intelligence
Studies have examined whether breastfeeding in infants is associated with higher intelligence later in life. Possible association between breastfeeding and intelligence is not clear. The 2007 review for the AHRQ found "no relationship between breastfeeding in term infants and cognitive performance" and in 2006, a prospective cohort study, sibling pairs analysis, and meta-analysis, concluded that "Breast feeding has little or no effect on intelligence in children." The researchers found that "Most of the observed association between breast feeding and cognitive development is the result of confounding by maternal intelligence."
However a 2007 review for the World Health Organization "suggests that breastfeeding is associated with increased cognitive development in childhood." The review also states that "The issue remains of whether the association is related to the properties of breastmilk itself, or whether breastfeeding enhances the bonding between mother and child, and thus contributes to intellectual development." A 2005 study using data on 2,734 sibling pairs from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health "provide persuasive evidence of a causal connection between breastfeeding and intelligence." In another study, cited as "the largest randomized trial ever conducted in the area of human lactation," between 1996 and 1997 maternity hospitals and polyclinics in Belarus were randomized to receive or not receive breastfeeding promotion modeled on the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative. Of 13,889 infants born at these hospitals and polyclinics and followed up in 2002–2005, those who had been born in hospitals and polyclinics receiving breastfeeding promotion had IQs that were 2.9–7.5 points higher (which was significantly higher). Since (among other reasons) a randomized trial should control for maternal IQ, the authors concluded in a 2008 paper that the data "provide strong evidence that prolonged and exclusive breastfeeding improves children's cognitive development."
Read more about this topic: Breastfeeding
Other articles related to "connection to intelligence, connection":
... But it's not a simple all-or-none connection it depends to some extent on the genetic makeup of each infant" and, "further investigation to replicate and explain this specific gene–environment ...
... But it's not a simple all-or-none connection it depends to some extent on the genetic makeup of each infant" and, "further investigation to replicate and explain this specific gene–environment interaction ...
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