A blowout preventer is a large, specialized valve or similar mechanical device, usually installed redundantly in stacks, used to seal, control and monitor oil and gas wells. Blowout preventers were developed to cope with extreme erratic pressures and uncontrolled flow (formation kick) emanating from a well reservoir during drilling. Kicks can lead to a potentially catastrophic event known as a blowout. In addition to controlling the downhole (occurring in the drilled hole) pressure and the flow of oil and gas, blowout preventers are intended to prevent tubing (e.g. drill pipe and well casing), tools and drilling fluid from being blown out of the wellbore (also known as bore hole, the hole leading to the reservoir) when a blowout threatens. Blowout preventers are critical to the safety of crew, rig (the equipment system used to drill a wellbore) and environment, and to the monitoring and maintenance of well integrity; thus blowout preventers are intended to be fail-safe devices.
The abbreviated term preventer, usually prefaced by a type (e.g. ram preventer), is used to refer to a single blowout preventer unit. A blowout preventer may also simply be referred to by its type (e.g. ram).
The terms blowout preventer, blowout preventer stack and blowout preventer system are commonly used interchangeably and in a general manner to describe an assembly of several stacked blowout preventers of varying type and function, as well as auxiliary components. A typical subsea deepwater blowout preventer system includes components such as electrical and hydraulic lines, control pods, hydraulic accumulators, test valve, kill and choke lines and valves, riser joint, hydraulic connectors, and a support frame.
Two categories of blowout preventer are most prevalent: ram and annular. BOP stacks frequently utilize both types, typically with at least one annular BOP stacked above several ram BOPs.
(A related valve, called an inside blowout preventer, internal blowout preventer, or IBOP, is positioned within, and restricts flow up, the drillpipe. This article does not address inside blowout preventer use.)
Blowout preventers are used at land and offshore rigs, and subsea. Land and subsea BOPs are secured to the top of the wellbore, known as the wellhead. BOPs on offshore rigs are mounted below the rig deck. Subsea BOPs are connected to the offshore rig above by a drilling riser that provides a continuous pathway for the drill string and fluids emanating from the wellbore. In effect, a riser extends the wellbore to the rig.
Other articles related to "blowout preventer, preventer, blowout":
... The annular blowout preventer was invented by Granville Sloan Knox in 1946 a U.S ... An annular-type blowout preventer can close around the drill string, casing or a non-cylindrical object, such as the kelly ... pressure is contained below) through an annular preventer by careful control of the hydraulic closing pressure ...
... blowout Uncontrolled release of crude oil and/or natural gas from a well after pressure control systems have failed blowout preventer also BOP A large ... ambient pressure already BOP stack Blowout preventer stack An assembly of several blowout preventer rams which may be used to shut off a well ...
... During the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig explosion incident on April 20, 2010, the blowout preventer should have been activated automatically, cutting the drillstring ... were used to manually trigger the blind shear ram preventer, to no avail ... As of May 2010 it was unknown why the blowout preventer failed ...