Authentication - Factors and Identity

Factors and Identity

The ways in which someone may be authenticated fall into three categories, based on what are known as the factors of authentication: something the user knows, something the user has, and something the user is. Each authentication factor covers a range of elements used to authenticate or verify a person's identity prior to being granted access, approving a transaction request, signing a document or other work product, granting authority to others, and establishing a chain of authority.

Security research has determined that for a positive identification, elements from at least two, and preferably all three, factors should be verified. The three factors (classes) and some of elements of each factor are:

  • the ownership factors: Something the user has (e.g., wrist band, ID card, security token, software token, phone, or cell phone)
  • the knowledge factors: Something the user knows (e.g., a password, pass phrase, or personal identification number (PIN), challenge response (the user must answer a question))
  • the inherence factors: Something the user is or does (e.g., fingerprint, retinal pattern, DNA sequence (there are assorted definitions of what is sufficient), signature, face, voice, unique bio-electric signals, or other biometric identifier).

Read more about this topic:  Authentication

Other articles related to "factors, factor, factors and identity":

Information Integration Theory - Integration Models
... Adding models R = reaction/overt behavior F/G = contributing factors There are two special cases known as discounting and augmentation ... Discounting The value of any factor is reduced if other factors that produce the same effect are added ... Certain kinds of interaction among the factors would not affect the qualitative conclusions ...
Factors and Identity - Two-factor Authentication
... When elements representing two factors are required for identification, the term two-factor authentication is applied — e.g ... require users to provide a password (knowledge factor) and a pseudorandom number from a security token (ownership factor) ... mantrap screening of height, weight, facial, and fingerprint checks (several inherence factor elements) plus a PIN and a day code (knowledge factor elements), but ...
Elaboration Likelihood Model - Choice of Route
... The two factors that most influence which route an individual will take in a persuasive situation are motivation (strong desire to process the message e.g ... Both motivational and ability factors determine elaboration ... Motivational factors include (among others) the personal relevance of the message topic, accountability, and a person's "need for cognition" (their innate desire to enjoy thinking) ...
Factors of Spatial Mismatch
... Selod and Yves Zenou suggested that there are seven different factors that support the Spatial Mismatch phenomenon ... Three factors are attributed to potential workers accessibility and initiatives ... The remaining two factors stress employers’ reluctance to divert away from the negative stigma of city people and in particular minorities when hiring ...

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