Xinjiang (Uyghur: شىنجاڭ‎, ULY: Shinjang; ; Chinese: 新疆; pinyin: Xīnjiāng; Wade–Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal map spelling: Sinkiang), officially Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (XUAR), is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China located in the northwest of the country. It is the largest Chinese administrative division and spans over 1.6 million km2. Xinjiang borders Russia, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India, has abundant oil reserves and is China's largest natural gas-producing region.

Chinese name
Chinese 新疆
Postal Map Sinkiang
- Romanization Sîn-kiông
- Hanyu Pinyin Xīnjiāng
- Wade–Giles Hsin1-chiang1
- Hokkien POJ Sin-kiong
- Min-dong BUC Sĭng-giŏng
- Teochew Peng'im Sing-kiang
- Romanization sin cian
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region
Traditional Chinese 新疆維吾爾自治區
Simplified Chinese 新疆维吾尔自治区
- Romanization Sîn-kiông Vì-ngâ-ngì Tshṳ-tshṳ-khî
- Hanyu Pinyin Xīnjiāng Wéiwú'ěr Zìzhìqū
- Hokkien POJ Sin-kiong Ûi-ngô͘-ní Chū-tī-khu
- Min-dong BUC Sĭng-giŏng Mì-ngù-ī Cê̤ṳ-dê-kṳ̆
- Teochew Peng'im Sing-kiang Jûi-û-jéu Tsĕu-tī-khu
- Romanization sin cian vi ng el zy zy chiu
Uyghur name
Uyghur شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى
- Latin Yëziqi Shinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayoni
- Yengi Yezik̡ Xinjang Uyƣur Aptonom Rayoni
- SASM/GNC Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni
- Siril Yëziqi Шинҗаң Уйғур Аптоном Райони

It is home to a number of different ethnic groups including the Uyghur, Han, Kazakh, Hui, Kyrgyz, and Mongol, with a majority of the population adhering to Islam. More than a dozen autonomous prefectures and counties for minorities are located in Xinjiang. Older English-language reference works often refer to the area as Chinese Turkestan, Sinkiang, and East Turkestan. Xinjiang is divided into the Dzungarian Basin in the north and the Tarim Basin in the south by a mountain range. Only about 4.3% of Xinjiang's land area is fit for human habitation.

With a documented history of at least 2,500 years, a succession of peoples and empires has vied for control over all or parts of this territory. Prior to the 21st century, all or part of the region has been ruled, controlled, influenced at times by the Tocharians, Yuezhi, Xiongnu Empire, Kushan Empire, Han Empire, Former Liang, Former Qin, Later Liang, Western Liáng, Tang Dynasty, Uyghur Khaganate, Kara-Khanid Khanate, Mongol Empire (Yuan Dynasty), Dzungar Khanate, Qing Dynasty, the Republic of China, and, since 1950, the People's Republic of China.

Read more about Xinjiang:  Names, Description, Subdivisions, Geography and Geology, Politics, Economy, Demographics, Media, Sports

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