Working Class


Working class (or lower class, labouring class, sometimes proletariat) is a term used in the social sciences and in ordinary conversation to describe those employed in lower tier jobs (as measured by skill, education and lower incomes), often extending to those in unemployment or otherwise possessing below-average incomes. Working classes are mainly found in industrialized economies and in urban areas of non-industrialized economies.

As with many terms describing social class, working class is defined and used in many different ways. When used non-academically, it typically refers to a section of society dependent on physical labor, especially when compensated with an hourly wage. Its use in academic discourse is contentious, especially following the decline of manual labor in postindustrial societies. It is often used synonymously for proletariat, particularly amongst Marxist authors. Some academics question the usefulness of the concept of a working class.

The term is usually contrasted with the upper class and middle class, in general terms of access to economic resources, education, cultural interests, and other goods and services. The cut-off between working class and middle class is more specifically where a population spends money primarily as a lifestyle rather than for sustenance (for example, on fashion versus merely nutrition and shelter). Problematically, relying on this method of distinction would rule out many of the people who are often identified as working class.

Its usage can alternately be derogatory, or can express a sense of pride in those who self-identify as working class.

Read more about Working Class:  Definitions, History

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Charlie Bubbles
... Cloud III convertible - CB 1E, contrasting sharply with the working class life and the poverty of post war Salford ... record of the mass demolition of so much of working class Victorian back to back dwellings ... Are you still working Sir or do you just do the writing now?" Bubbles smiles wryly and retorts "No, I just do the writing" and hands him a bank note ...
Labor Process Theory
... Braverman primarily pays attention to the class-in-itself or the working class as the subject of management and capitalist brutality, acknowledging his inability to attend to working class self-emancipation in this ... footsteps have criticised his "deskilling" thesis as not universal and, have attended to working class resistance to the imposition of Fordism ... examination of how these are used to reduce the power of sections of the working class who hold work skills that aren't reproducible by unskilled labour or machine power ...
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... A central axiom of Marxism is that the liberation of the working class must come at the hands of the working class itself ... That this premise has been advanced by an unending string of middle-class intellectuals ranging from the professor-without-portfolio Dr ... assumed that only conscious and concerted effort by the working class itself can lead to cause the revolutionary transformation of economy and society ...
Working Class - History
... The history of the working class has been defined by two contradictory processes, the immiseration of traditional communities in order to produce workers, and the ... Many of these responses have emphasized that working class individuals are defined by processes other than work ... Working class history is generally accepted to begin with the enclosure of English commons, and the generation of paid industrial labor in manufactories in Holland and England ...

Famous quotes related to working class:

    That’s what being in the working class is all about—how to get out of it.
    Neville Kenneth Wran (b. 1926)

    ... in the working class, the process of building a family, of making a living for it, of nurturing and maintaining the individuals in it ‘costs worlds of pain.’
    Lillian Breslow Rubin (b. 1924)