Upper Burma

Upper Burma (Burmese: အထက်မြန်မာပြည်, also called Real Myanmar) refers to a geographic region of Burma (Myanmar), traditionally encompassing Mandalay and its periphery (modern Mandalay, Sagaing, Magway Regions), or more broadly speaking, Kachin and Shan States.

In the Burmese language, people originating from Upper Burma are typically called a-nya tha (အညာသား), whereas those from Lower Burma are called auk tha (အောက်သား).

The term was first used by the British to refer to the central and northern area of what is now the country of Myanmar (Burma). After the Second Anglo-Burmese War of 1852, Lower Burma was annexed by the British Empire, while Upper Burma remained independent under the Kingdom of Burma until the Third Anglo-Burmese War of 1885. Upper Burma was also known as Burma proper and the Kingdom of Ava. Historically, Upper Burma was predominantly Bamar (whereas Lower Burma was historically Mon-speaking until the early 1800s), while the Frontier Areas, as designated by the colonial administration, included ethnic minority areas, such as the Shan States and modern Kachin State.

This distinction between Upper and Lower Burma is also found in some government departments (for instance, the Ministry of Education has departments assigned to Upper or Lower Burma), while some newspapers make a distinction between the two bodies. The Burmese language edition of the The Myanmar Times is an example; the newspaper devotes a section to news from Upper Burma. In terms of linguistic differences, there are minute differences between the variants of Burmese spoken by Upper Burmese, especially in vocabulary choice (such as kinship terms that differentiate the maternal and paternal sides of a family, which is not made in Lower Burmese speech). However, there is remarkable uniformity in the Burmese spoken throughout the Irrawaddy River valley, which also includes the delta-lying and coastal region of Lower Burma.

Other articles related to "upper burma, burma, upper":

Binnya Dala
... Dala continued the war against the Toungoo dynasty, launching a full scale invasion of Upper Burma in 1750, and capturing the capital of Ava in April 1752 ... Binnya Dala mistakenly thought Upper Burma had been won, and withdrew two-thirds of the invasion force back to Pegu, leaving just a third for what he considered a mop-up operation ... December 1753, all of Hanthawaddy forces had been driven out of Upper Burma ...
... a small principality in the dry zone of Upper Burma into the first Burmese Empire that formed the basis of modern-day Burma (Myanmar) ... He successfully stopped the advance of Khmer Empire into Tenasserim coastline and into Upper Menam valley, making Pagan one of two main kingdoms in ... he turned parched, arid regions around Pagan into the main rice granaries of Upper Burma, giving Upper Burma an enduring economic base from which to ...
Military History Of Burma - Konbaung Period - Konbaung Empire - Restored Hanthawaddy (1752–1757)
... After the fall of Ava, many independent resistance movements sprang up across a panicked Upper Burma ... less than 10,000 troops to pacify all of Upper Burma ... leader, and by taking advantage of Hanthawaddy's low troop levels, went on to conquer all of Upper Burma by the end of 1753 ...
Shan States
... The Shan States were the princely states that ruled large areas of today's Burma (Myanmar), Yunnan Province in China, Laos and Thailand from the late 13th century until mid-20th century ... colonial period as a geopolitical designation for certain areas of Burma (officially, the Federated Shan States, consisted of today's Shan State and Kayah State) ... The first founding of Shan states inside the present day boundaries of Burma began during period of Pagan Kingdom in the Shan Hills and Kachin Hills and ...

Famous quotes containing the words burma and/or upper:

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