Beginning in the late 1980s, an open operating system standardization effort now known as POSIX provided a common baseline for all operating systems; IEEE based POSIX around the common structure of the major competing variants of the Unix system, publishing the first POSIX standard in 1988. In the early 1990s, a separate but very similar effort was started by an industry consortium, the Common Open Software Environment (COSE) initiative, which eventually became the Single UNIX Specification administered by The Open Group. Starting in 1998, the Open Group and IEEE started the Austin Group, to provide a common definition of POSIX and the Single UNIX Specification.
In 1999, in an effort towards compatibility, several Unix system vendors agreed on SVR4's Executable and Linkable Format (ELF) as the standard for binary and object code files. The common format allows substantial binary compatibility among Unix systems operating on the same CPU architecture.
The Filesystem Hierarchy Standard was created to provide a reference directory layout for Unix-like operating systems, particularly Linux.
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Other articles related to "standards":
... In the United States, emissions standards are managed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ... to promulgate more stringent vehicle emissions standards, and other states may choose to follow either the national or California standards ... California's emissions standards are set by the California Air Resources Board, known locally by its acronym "CARB" ...
... primary aim is to avoid duplication of (potentially conflicting) standards between CEN and ISO ... In the last decade CEN has adopted a number of ISO standards which replaced the corresponding CEN standards ...
... Emission standards are requirements that set specific limits to the amount of pollutants that can be released into the environment ... Many emissions standards focus on regulating pollutants released by automobiles (motor cars) and other powered vehicles but they can also regulate emissions from industry, power plants, small equipment ... Frequent policy alternatives to emissions standards are technology standards ...
... Morris Committee drew up an influential 1961 report on housing space standards in public housing in the United Kingdom entitled Homes for Today and Tomorrow ... to be improved to match the rise in living standards and made a number of recommendations ... The Committee took a functional approach to determining space standards in the home by considering what furniture was needed in rooms, the space needed to use the furniture and move around it, and the ...
... The major functions of QEC are to review quality standards and the quality of teaching and learning in each subject area ... promote public confidence that the quality and standards of the award of degrees are enhanced and safeguarded ... define lucid and explicit standards as points of reference to the reviews to be carried out ...
Famous quotes containing the word standards:
“Today so much rebellion is aimless and demoralizing precisely because children have no values to challenge. Teenage rebellion is a testing process in which young people try out various values in order to make them their own. But during those years of trial, error, embarrassment, a child needs family standards to fall back on, reliable habits of thought and feeling that provide security and protection.”
—Neil Kurshan (20th century)
“The standards of His Majestys taste made all those ladies who aspired to his favour, and who were near the Statutable size, strain and swell themselves, like the frogs in the fable, to rival and bulk and dignity of the ox. Some succeeded, and others burst.”
—Philip Dormer Stanhope, 4th Earl Chesterfield (16941773)
“Thats the great danger of sectarian opinions, they always accept the formulas of past events as useful for the measurement of future events and they never are, if you have high standards of accuracy.”
—John Dos Passos (18961970)