Main verbs can take on three types of voices (Zeitoun 2005:284).
- Patient voice: -a
- Locative voice: -i
- Instrumental/benefactive voice: -(n)eni
Tsou verbs can be divided into five major classes (I, II, III-1, III-2, IV, V-1, V-2) based on morphological alternations (Zeitoun 2005:285). Tsou verbs do not have as many morphological distinctions as other Formosan languages do, since the Tsou language makes more extensive use of auxiliary verbs. For instance, there are no temporal/aspectual distinctions, separate markings for imperatives, and stative/dynamic distinctions. Nevertheless, Tsou still preserves the causative poa- (allomorphs: p-, pa-).
Tsou auxiliary verbs can carry temporal/aspectual and modal information as well as voice. They are marked for the following voices:
These auxiliary verbs can be divided into three classes:
- AV constructions - mio, mo, mi-, moso, mo(h)-
- UV constructions - i-, o(h)-
- AV/UV constructions - te, ta, tena, nte, ntoso, nto(h)-, la
Tsou has the following aspectual suffixes:
- -cu/-c'u - already
- -n'a - still, just, about to
- -la - once
Other articles related to "verbs, verb":
... The verb-stem temizle- "make clean" is the adjective temiz "clean" with the suffix -le- ... Many verbs are formed from nouns or adjectives with -le başla- "make a head", that is, "begin" (intransitive baş "head") kilitle- "make locked", that is, "lock" (kilit "lock ... see", for example Görüşürüz, "Goodbye" (literally "We see one another")) Many causative verbs are formed with -dir- ...
... The characteristic syntactic function of verbs is to act as the heads of predications in which they occur ...
... Prototypical verbs and prototypical prepositions exist along a cline with verbs at the start, prepositions at the end, and multicategoried word types in the ...
... On this approach, the periphrastic verb catenae briefly illustrated in the previous section are predicators ... These verb catenae generally contain a main verb and potentially one or more auxiliary verbs ... The auxiliary verbs help express functional meaning of aspect and voice ...
... Verbs and instrumental nouns crossover in that verbs theoretically derived from these nouns appear in an identical form ...
Famous quotes containing the word verbs:
“He crafted his writing and loved listening to those tiny explosions when the active brutality of verbs in revolution raced into sweet established nouns to send marching across the page a newly commissioned army of words-on-maneuvers, all decorated in loops, frets, and arrowlike flourishes.”
—Alexander Theroux (b. 1940)