The Lviv Pogroms Controversy (1941)
In June–July 1941 it is estimated that between 4,000-7,000 East-European civilians, many of whom were Jews, were murdered in Lviv. Much confusion has arisen because of the mixing two separate, but related atrocities called the Lviv pogroms:
- The massacre of an estimated 4,000-8,000 civilian prisoners in the Lviv prisons by the Soviet Security forces (NKVD) immediately prior to the Soviet retreat;
- The ethnic pogroms (primarily anti-semitic) that were instigated and encouraged by the Nazi administration (under the guise of an act of retribution for the former event) that took place immediately after occupation of Lviv by the German forces.
Controversy exists regarding the dates in which these atrocities took place, the numbers affected and the sources of information. The confusion is amplified by the political agenda of parties involved.
Controversy and confusion has arisen numerous times from a variety of sources as to the alleged involvement of prominent political and historic figures and groups in the massacre, notably Theodor Oberländer, Roman Shukhevych and the Nachtigall Battalion in the Lviv civilian massacre.
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