Terra Mariana

Terra Mariana (Land of Mary) was the official name for Medieval Livonia or Old Livonia (German: Alt-Livland, Estonian: Vana-Liivimaa, Latvian: Livonija) which was formed in the aftermath of the Livonian Crusade in the territories comprising present day Estonia and Latvia. It was established on February 2, 1207, as a principality of the Holy Roman Empire but lost this status in 1215 when proclaimed by Pope Innocent III as a direct subject to the Holy See.

Terra Mariana was divided into feudal principalities by Papal Legate William of Modena: the Archbishopric of Riga, Bishopric of Courland, Bishopric of Dorpat, Bishopric of Ösel-Wiek, the lands ruled by the Livonian Brothers of the Sword The northern parts became a Dominum directum to the King of Denmark, Duchy of Estonia.

After the 1236 Battle of Saule the surviving members of the brothers merged in 1237 with the Teutonic Order of Prussia and became known as the Livonian Order. In 1346 the order bought Danish Estonia. Throughout the existence of medieval Livonia there was a constant struggle over the supremacy of ruling the lands by the Church, the Order, the secular German nobility and the citizens of the Hanseatic towns of Riga and Reval. Following its defeat in the Battle of Grunwald in 1410 the Teutonic Order and the Ordenstaat fell into decline but the Livonian Order managed to maintain its independent existence. In 1561, during the Livonian war, Terra Mariana ceased to exist. Its northern parts were ceded to Sweden and formed into the Duchy of Estonia, its southern territories became part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania — and thus eventually of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as the Duchy of Livonia and Duchy of Courland and Semigallia. The island of Saaremaa became part of Denmark.

Other articles related to "terra mariana":

Terra Mariana - History - Livonian Confederation
... In 1418 Pope Martin V nominated Johannes Ambundii to the position of Archbishop of Riga ... He became known as the organizer of the Livonian confederation ...
Ostsiedlung - Background - Terra Mariana (Livonian Confederation)
... Main article Terra Mariana See also Baltic Germans Terra Mariana (Land of St ... The nominal head of Terra Mariana as well as the city of Riga was the Archbishop of Riga as the apex of the ecclesiastical hierarchy ... In 1561, during the Livonian war, Terra Mariana ceased to exist ...
Order Of The Cross Of Terra Mariana - Classes
... The Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana comprises six classes One special class – The Collar of the Cross of Terra Mariana Five basic classes – 1st, 2nd, 3rd ... of all the classes of the Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana have the same design and are of the same size ... to the decorations of all the classes of the Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana is determined according to the international PANTONE colour-table as 300 C ...
Livonian Confederation
... Terra Mariana (Land of Mary) was the official name for Medieval Livonia or Old Livonia (German Alt-Livland, Estonian Vana-Liivimaa, Latvian Livonija) which was formed in the ... Terra Mariana was divided into feudal principalities by Papal Legate William of Modena Duchy of Estonia (Dominum directum to the King of Denmark ... In 1561, during the Livonian war, Terra Mariana ceased to exist ...

Famous quotes containing the word terra:

    A ship is a bit of terra firma cut off from the main; it is a state in itself; and the captain is its king.
    Herman Melville (1819–1891)