Synthesiomyia Nudiseta - Life Cycle

Life Cycle

The S. nudiseta flies are one of the first to arrive on the source of their food and lay their eggs, which are about 1.3 mm long. The larvae however, develop more slowly when compared to the larvae of the flies that arrive with S. nudiseta. Pupatation occurs even later with the larvae of the later arriving fly species.

The life cycle of S. nudiseta from egg to adult lasts anywhere between 22–30 days and includes 3 instars. The species survives best in room temperature and warm environments, the optimal range for survival is anywhere from 25-31 degrees Celsius. S. nudiseta can introduce from four to nine generations per year. The higher the temperature is the larger the generation number will be.

The entire larval stage for S. nudiseta lasts for approximately 13–15 days. Through research and experimentation, it has been found that the developmental period for the first instar is about 24 hours, the period is greater for the second instar, approximately 48 hours and the third instar has the longest developmental period at 230 hours.

The first instar of the larval stage is between 1.5–3 mm long. These larvae have been found to have a very high mortality rate when compared to other larvae at this stage of development. There is only approximately a 65% survival rate after this instar. At the second instar, the larvae are 3–7 mm long and have a very high level of viability. During the third instar level, the larvae are 7-19.5 mm. This level is broken down into two stages. The first stage is when the larvae continue to feed and collect nutrients needed during pupation. The second stage of development is when the third instar larvae begin the search for a suitable place to pupate where it can begin the pre-pupal stage.

During the pre-pupal stage, the larvae begin to excrete a silk-like white liquid from their salivary glands which solidifies into a sort of scleritized protective film from which the puparium will form. The puparium is 7–8 mm in length and a brown-red color. The puparium is covered by a dirty white cocoon.

Pupation occurs relatively close to the food source of the S. nudiseta larvae because they tend to not typically migrate very far. S. nudiseta larvae are one of the few species that can successfully pupate in a confined location. Besides the encasing cocoon, the outside environment is also helpful to the protection of this puparium since dust and soil particles have been found coating the outside surface.

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