Supermassive Black Holes Outside The Milky Way
It is now widely accepted that the center of nearly every galaxy contains a supermassive black hole. The close observational correlation between the mass of this hole and the velocity dispersion of the host galaxy's bulge, known as the M-sigma relation, strongly suggests a connection between the formation of the black hole and the galaxy itself.
The explanation for this correlation remains an unsolved problem in astrophysics. The unknown nature of dark matter is a crucial variable in these models.
The nearby Andromeda Galaxy, 2.5 million light-years away, contains a (1.1–2.3) × 108 (110-230 million) solar mass central black hole, significantly larger than the Milky Way's. The largest supermassive black hole in the Milky Way's neighborhood appears to be that of M87, weighing in at (6.4 ± 0.5) × 109 (~6.4 billion) solar masses at a distance of 53.5 million light years. On 5 December 2011 astronomers discovered the largest super massive black hole yet found to be that of NGC 4889, weighing in at 21 billion solar masses at a distance of 336 million light-years away in the Coma constellation.
Some galaxies, such as Galaxy 0402+379, appear to have two supermassive black holes at their centers, forming a binary system. If they collided, the event would create strong gravitational waves. Binary supermassive black holes are believed to be a common consequence of galactic mergers. The binary pair in OJ 287, 3.5 billion light years away, contains the previous most massive black hole known (until the December 2011 discovery ), with a mass estimated at 18 billion solar masses. A supermassive black hole was recently discovered in the dwarf galaxy Henize 2-10, which has no bulge. The precise implications for this discovery on black hole formation are unknown, but may indicate that black holes formed before bulges.
On March 28, 2011, a supermassive black hole (SMBH) was for the first time seen tearing a mid-size star apart. That is, according to astronomers, the only likely explanation of the observations that day of sudden X-ray radiation and the follow-up broad-band observations. The source was previously an inactive galactic nucleus, and from study of the outburst the galactic nucleus is estimated to be a SMBH with mass of the order of a million solar masses. This rare event is assumed to be a relativistic outflow (material being emitted in a jet at a significant fraction of the speed of light) from a star tidally disrupted by the SMBH. A significant fraction of a solar mass of material is expected to have accreted onto the SMBH. Subsequent long-term observation will allow this assumption to be confirmed if the emission from the jet decays at the expected rate for mass accretion onto a SMBH.
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