Stand Watie (December 12, 1806 – September 9, 1871; also known as Standhope Uwatie, Degataga (Cherokee: ᏕᎦᏔᎦ), meaning “stand firm”, and Isaac S. Watie) was a leader of the Cherokee Nation and a brigadier general of the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. He commanded the Confederate Indian cavalry of the Army of the Trans-Mississippi, made up mostly of Cherokee, Muskogee and Seminole.
Prior to removal of the Cherokee to Indian Territory in the late 1830s, Watie and his older brother Elias Boudinot were among leaders who signed the Treaty of New Echota in 1835. The majority of the tribe opposed their action. In 1839 the brothers were attacked in an assassination attempt, as were other relatives active in the Treaty Party. All but Stand Watie were killed. Watie in 1842 killed one of his uncle's attackers, and in 1845 his brother Thomas Watie was killed in retaliation, in the continuing cycle of violence. Watie was acquitted at trial in the 1850s on the grounds of self-defense.
During the American Civil War and soon after, Watie served as Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation (1862-1866). By then, the majority of the tribe supported the Confederacy. A minority supported the Union and refused to ratify his election. The former chief John Ross, a Union supporter, was captured in 1862 by Union forces.
Watie led the Southern Cherokee delegation to Washington after the war to sue for peace, hoping to have tribal divisions recognized. The US government negotiated only with the leaders who had sided with the Union, and named John Ross as principal chief in 1866 under a new treaty. Watie stayed out of politics for his last years, and tried to rebuild his plantation.
... Led by Major Ridge, his son John Ridge, and nephews Elias Boudinot and Stand Watie, they became known as the “Ridge Party”, or the “Treaty Party” ... Party, traveled to Washington with a party that included John Ridge and Stand Watie to open new negotiations, but they were turned away and told to deal with Schermerhorn ... John Ridge and Stand Watie signed the treaty when it was brought to Washington ...
... Stand Watie is featured occasionally in Rifles for Watie, a novel by Harold Keith ... It portrays the experiences of a young Union soldier from Kansas, who meets Watie and his people in Tahlequah ... Comanches, outlaws, longhorns, Geronimo, the red wolf, and Stand Watie ...
... However, another leader of the Cherokee, Stand Watie, was eager to join the Confederate cause, and on June 1, 1861, began recruiting for an army to assist the Southern cause ... Cherokee supported the 3/4 Cherokee Stand Watie ... Stand Watie in 1862 was elected Chief of the Southern Cherokee Nation ...
... his father and most of his siblings, his uncle (David Watie), and Watie cousins to what is now Indian Territory ... They also attacked Stand Watie, but he survived ... For example, in 1842 Stand Watie killed a man he recognized as an attacker of his uncle Major Ridge ...
... Stand Watie and other officers had to fight on without support ... forts in the territory, but abandoned them when faced with ongoing raids by Stand Watie ... Later the Union recaptured them Stand Watie was the last Confederate commander in the field to surrender ...
Famous quotes containing the word stand:
“What a wonderful bird the frog are
When he stand he sit almost;
When he hop, he fly almost.
He aint got no sense hardly;
He aint got no tail hardly either.
When he sit, he sit on what he aint got almost.”
—Unknown. The Frog (l. 16)