Salisbury Steak Around The World
Hamburg (ハンバーグ, hanbāgu?, Hamburg steak) is a popular Salisbury steak dish in Japan. It is made from ground meat with finely chopped onion, egg and breadcrumbs flavored with various spices, and made into a flat, circular shape about a centimeter thick and 10 to 15 cm in diameter. Many restaurants specialize in various styles of hamburger steak. Some variations include hanbāgu topped with cheese (チーズハンバーグ, or chizuhanbāgu), hanbāgu with Japanese curry, and Italian hanbāgu (with tomato sauce rather than gravy).
Hamburger steak became popular during the 1960s as a more affordable way to serve otherwise costly meat. Magazines regularly printed the recipe during that decade, elevating it to a staple dish in Japanese culture. In Japan, the dish dates back to the Meiji period and is believed to have been first served in Yokohama, which was one of the first ports opened to foreigners. Since the 1980s, vacuum packed hamburgers are sold with sauce already added, and these are widely used in box lunches (bento). Frozen hamburgers are popular as well, often served in fast food style restaurants because they have a richer taste and firmer texture than vacuum-packed hamburger.
In Hawaii, hamburger steak is very similar to the Japanese hanbāgu. It consists of burger patty with brown gravy. It is usually served with macaroni salad and rice in a plate lunch. There is also a variety which includes an egg, which is called loco moco. The dish is also common in South Korea, where the recipe and name (햄버그 스테이크 | hambeogeu sŭt'eik'ŭ) were adopted from Japan.
Minced cutlet (котлета рубленая, kotleta rublenaya), or, since the late 19th century, simply "cutlet", is a staple of Russian cuisine. It is similar to a Salisbury steak, with the main difference being pure beef is rarely employed—usually pork or a beef-pork mixture is used. The meat is seasoned with salt and pepper, mixed with finely chopped onion (optionally fried), garlic, and a binder (eggs and breadcrumbs soaked in milk), divided into oval-shaped patties, lightly breaded and shallow-fried in a half-inch of vegetable oil. The similarly named Japanese dish, menchi katsu, is always deep-fried and heavily breaded, being essentially a mincemeat croquette, while the Russian version is always shallow-fried.
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