A rifle is a firearm designed to be fired from the shoulder, with a barrel that has a helical groove or pattern of grooves ("rifling") cut into the barrel walls. The raised areas of the rifling are called "lands," which make contact with the projectile (for small arms usage, called a bullet), imparting spin around an axis corresponding to the orientation of the weapon. When the projectile leaves the barrel, this spin lends gyroscopic stability to the projectile and prevents tumbling, in the same way that a properly thrown American football or rugby ball behaves. This allows the use of aerodynamically-efficient pointed bullets (as opposed to the spherical balls used in muskets) and thus improves range and accuracy. The word "rifle" originally referred to the grooving, and a rifle was called a "rifled gun." Rifles are used in warfare, hunting and shooting sports.

Typically, a bullet is propelled by the contained deflagration of an explosive compound (originally black powder, later cordite, and now nitrocellulose), although other means such as compressed air are used in air rifles, which are popular for vermin control, hunting small game, formal target shooting and casual shooting ("plinking").

In most armed forces the term "gun" is incorrect when referring to small arms; in military parlance, the word "gun" refers to an artillery piece or crew-served machine gun. Furthermore, in many works of fiction a rifle refers to any weapon that has a stock and is shouldered before firing, even if the weapon is not rifled or does not fire solid projectiles (e.g. a "laser rifle").

Formerly, rifles only fired a single projectile with each squeeze of the trigger. Modern rifles are capable of firing more than one round per trigger squeeze; some fire in a fully automatic mode and others are limited to fixed bursts of two, three, or more rounds per squeeze. Thus, modern automatic rifles overlap to an extent in design and function with machine guns. In fact, many light machine guns (such as the Russian RPK) are adaptations of existing automatic rifle designs. Generally, the difference between an automatic rifle and a machine gun comes down to weight and feed system; rifles, with their relatively light components (which overheat quickly) and small magazines, are incapable of sustained automatic fire in the way that machine guns are. Modern military rifles are fed by box magazines, while machine guns are generally (but not always) belt-fed. While machine guns are often crewed by more than one soldier, the rifle is an individual weapon.

The term "rifle" is sometimes used to describe rifled weapons firing explosive shells; for example the recoilless rifle.

Read more about Rifle:  Historical Overview, 19th Century, 20th Century

Other articles related to "rifle, rifles":

Automatic Rifle - History
... The world's first automatic rifle was the Mexican Mondragón rifle and was designed by General Manuel Mondragón ... However, the automatic rifle traces its roots to World War I, where the Browning Automatic Rifle (BAR) first appeared ... entirely lived up to the desigers hopes being neither a rifle nor a machinegun ...
Automatic Rifle - Examples
... Farquhar-Hill rifle Federov Avtomat Cei-Rigotti Browning Automatic Rifle M1946 Sieg automatic rifle MTB 1925 ...
Rifle, Colorado - Popular Culture
... On August 10, 1972, Christo and Jeanne-Claude completed the Valley Curtain project at Rifle Gap, a few miles north of the town of Rifle ... A portion of the film Vanishing Point was filmed in Rifle ... Rifle Mountain Park, located 12 miles north of Rifle, is maintained by the City of Rifle ...
Brunswick Rifle
... The Brunswick rifle was a large caliber (.704) muzzle-loading percussion rifle manufactured for the British Army at the Royal Small Arms Factory at Enfield in the early 19th century ...
Brunswick Rifle - Design and Features
... Like all rifles of the period, the Brunswick rifle suffered from the problem of being difficult to load ... Rounds for rifles were required to fit tightly into the barrel so that the round would grip the rifling as it traveled down the barrel, imparting a spin to the round ... even the Brunswick's design more and more difficult to load as the rifle was used ...

Famous quotes containing the word rifle:

    Truth is his inspirer, and earnestness the polisher of his sentences. He could afford to lose his Sharp’s rifles, while he retained his faculty of speech,—a Sharp’s rifle of infinitely surer and longer range.
    Henry David Thoreau (1817–1862)

    Many times man lives and dies
    Betweeen his two eternities,
    That of race and that of soul,
    And ancient Ireland knew it all.
    Whether man die in his bed
    Or the rifle knocks him dead,
    William Butler Yeats (1865–1939)

    At Hayes’ General Store, west of the cemetery, hangs an old army rifle, used by a discouraged Civil War veteran to end his earthly troubles. The grocer took the rifle as payment ‘on account.’
    —Administration for the State of Con, U.S. public relief program (1935-1943)