Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer is a form of cancer that develops in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. Most prostate cancers are slow growing; however, there are cases of aggressive prostate cancers. The cancer cells may metastasize (spread) from the prostate to other parts of the body, particularly the bones and lymph nodes. Prostate cancer may cause pain, difficulty in urinating, problems during sexual intercourse, or erectile dysfunction. Other symptoms can potentially develop during later stages of the disease.

Rates of detection of prostate cancers vary widely across the world, with South and East Asia detecting less frequently than in Europe, and especially the United States. Prostate cancer tends to develop in men over the age of fifty. Globally it is the sixth leading cause of cancer-related death in men (in the United States it is the second). Prostate cancer is most common in the developed world with increasing rates in the developing world. However, many men with prostate cancer never have symptoms, undergo no therapy, and eventually die of other unrelated causes. Many factors, including genetics and diet, have been implicated in the development of prostate cancer.

The presence of prostate cancer may be indicated by symptoms, physical examination, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), or biopsy. Prostate-specific antigen testing increases cancer detection but does not decrease mortality. The United States Preventive Services Task Force in 2012 recommended against screening for prostate cancer using the PSA testing, due to the risk of over-diagnosis and over-treatment with most prostate cancer remaining asymptomatic. The USPSTF concludes that the potential benefit of testing does not outweigh the expected harms.

Management strategies for prostate cancer should be guided by the severity of the disease. Many low-risk tumors can be safely followed with active surveillance. Curative treatment generally involves surgery, various forms of radiation therapy, or, less commonly, cryosurgery; hormonal therapy and chemotherapy are generally reserved for cases of advanced disease (although hormonal therapy may be given with radiation in some cases). Several studies suggest that masturbation reduces the risk of prostate cancer.

The age and underlying health of the man, the extent of metastasis, appearance under the microscope and response of the cancer to initial treatment are important in determining the outcome of the disease. The decision whether or not to treat localized prostate cancer (a tumor that is contained within the prostate) with curative intent is a patient trade-off between the expected beneficial and harmful effects in terms of patient survival and quality of life.

Read more about Prostate Cancer:  Signs and Symptoms, Causes, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Screening, Prevention, Management, Prognosis, Epidemiology, History, Society and Culture, Research

Other articles related to "prostate cancer, prostate cancers, prostate":

Stalevo - Studies - STRIDE-PD - Prostate Cancer Data
... Among those who received treatment, there was a higher number of cases of prostate cancer in patients in the Stalevo group compared those in the ... Specifically, 9 out of 245 males (3.7%, 95% Confidence Interval 1.69% - 6.86%) had prostate cancer in the Stalevo group compared to the 2 out of 222 ... The incidence rate of prostate cancer was 14 cases/1,000 patient years for Stalevo and 3.2 cases/1,000 patient years for carbidopa/levodopa ...
Sweetapple - Peeball
... cost £1.00 with at least 30p of which going directly to the Prostate Cancer Charity ... – Peeball has been adopted for launch by several other national prostate cancer charities ... in the UK raising over £150,000 for The Prostate Cancer Charity ...
Somatic Evolution In Cancer - Somatic Evolution in Therapeutic Resistance - Resistance To Anti-androgen Therapy
... Most prostate cancers derive from cells that are stimulated to proliferate by androgens ... Most prostate cancer therapies are therefore based on removing or blocking androgens ... Mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) have been observed in anti-androgen resistant prostate cancer that makes the AR hypersensitive to the low levels of androgens that ...
Larry Goldenberg
... field of medicine and a pioneer in the treatment of prostate cancer ... hormonal therapy for patients with advanced cases of prostate cancer ... among the leading treatment options for advanced prostate cancer until the mid-1990s ...
Prostate Cancer - Research - Diagnosis
... of research and non-clinically applied investigations involve non-invasive methods of prostate tumor detection ... in urine has been correlated to a high probability of prostate cancer ... PCA3 Another potential non-invasive method of early prostate tumor detection is through a molecular test that detects the presence of cell-associated PCA3 mRNA in fluid ...

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