Phrenologists

Phrenologists

Phrenology (from Greek: φρήν, phrēn, "mind"; and λόγος, logos, "knowledge") is a pseudoscience primarily focused on measurements of the human skull, based on the concept that the brain is the organ of the mind, and that certain brain areas have localized, specific functions or modules. The distinguishing feature of phrenology is the idea that the sizes of brain areas were meaningful and could be inferred by examining the skull of an individual. Following the materialist notions of mental functions originating in the brain, phrenologists believed that human conduct could best be understood in neurological rather than philosophical or religious terms. Developed by German physician Franz Joseph Gall in 1796, the discipline was very popular in the 19th century, especially from about 1810 until 1840. The principal British centre for phrenology was Edinburgh, where the Edinburgh Phrenological Society was established in 1820. In 1843, François Magendie referred to phrenology as "a pseudo-science of the present day."

Phrenological thinking was, however, influential in 19th-century psychiatry and modern neuroscience. Gall's assumption that character, thoughts, and emotions are located in localized parts of the brain is considered an important historical advance toward neuropsychology.

Read more about Phrenologists:  Mental Faculties, Method, History, Application, In Popular Culture, See Also

Other articles related to "phrenologist, phrenologists":

Phrenology - History
... was Luigi Ferrarese, the leading Italian phrenologist ... brilliant but erratic heart specialist became a phrenologist in the 1840s, he was also a mesmerist and combined the two into something he called phrenomesmerism or ... phrenology and mesmerism as well, such as the practical phrenologists Collyer and Joseph R ...
Edinburgh Phrenological Society - The Society
... One is tempted to believe phrenologists are right about habitual exercise of the mind altering form of the head, and thus these qualities become hereditary ... In 1823, Andrew Combe, a distinguished physician and phrenologist, addressed the Royal Medical Society in a debate, arguing that phrenology best explained the intellectual and ... The Christian phrenologists, led by David Welsh, detected an increasing emphasis on a "morality without religion" among George Combe and his colleagues ...
Edinburgh Phrenological Society - Later Influence of Phrenological Thought
... The phrenologists were given a financial boost by the death of a wealthy supporter - William Ramsay Henderson - in 1832 he left a large bequest to the ... This enabled the phrenologists to publish a cheap version of The Constitution of Man, which went on to become one of the best selling books of the 19th Century ... of the Brain in which he recorded a generous appreciation of the role of the Edinburgh phrenologists in the later development of neurology and neuropsychiatry ...