A personal union is the combination by which two or more different states have the same monarch while their boundaries, their laws and their interests remain distinct. It should not be confused with a federation which is internationally considered a single state. Nor is it to be confused with dynastic union, where the union can be under a dynasty.
Personal unions can arise for very different reasons, ranging from coincidence (a princess who is already married to a king becomes queen regnant, and their child inherits the crown of both countries) to virtual annexation (where a personal union sometimes was seen as a means of preventing uprisings). They can also be codified (i.e., the constitutions of the states clearly express that they shall share the same person as head of state) or non-codified, in which case they can easily be broken (e.g., by the death of the monarch when the two states have different succession laws).
Because presidents of republics are ordinarily chosen from within the citizens of the state in question, personal unions are almost entirely a phenomenon of monarchies, the unique exception in modern times being the Principality of Andorra in which one of the two co-princes is the President of France, while the other is a Roman Catholic bishop. Sometimes the term dual monarchy is used to signify a personal union between two monarchies.
There is a somewhat grey area between personal unions and federations, and the first has regularly grown into the second.
The only personal unions currently in existence are the partial union of France and Andorra, and the sixteen Commonwealth realms.
Read more about Personal Union: Andorra, Aragon, Crown Of, Bohemia, Brandenburg, Brazil, Commonwealth Realms, Congo Free State, Denmark, Egypt, England, Finland, France, Great Britain, Hanover, Holy Roman Empire, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Navarre, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Eisenach, Schleswig and Holstein, Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt and Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom, Other Uses: Party-State "personal Union"
Other articles related to "personal, union, personal union":
... I of England and of Ireland he held all three crowns in a personal but not a political union.) Charles I (1625–1649) Interregnum Charles II (1660–1685 ... The personal union with the Crown of Ireland was still in place.) George I (1714–1727) (As as consequence of the parliament of Great Britain's Act of ...
... This includes The Kingdom of Denmark (up to 1397) Personal union of Denmark and Norway (1380–1397) The Kalmar Union (1397–1536) Union of Denmark, Norway and Sweden (1397–1523) Union of Denmark and Norway (1523–15 ... Independent in a personal union with Denmark 1918–1944 ... A sovereign republic since 1944.) Greenland (since the union between Denmark and Norway in 1380 ...
... Opposition to the claim led to a war and the personal union of Croatia and Hungary in 1102, ruled by Coloman ...
... The term personal union was also used to describe the bureaucratic device used in Nazi Germany to combine high-level state positions with equivalent positions in the National Socialist Party ...
1681–1697 Charles XI of Sweden, in personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden 1697–1718 Charles XII of Sweden, in personal union with the Kingdom ...
Famous quotes containing the words union and/or personal:
“Some are petitioning the State to dissolve the Union, to disregard the requisitions of the President. Why do they not dissolve it themselves,the union between themselves and the State,and refuse to pay their quota into its treasury? Do not they stand in the same relation to the State that the State does to the Union? And have not the same reasons prevented the State from resisting the Union which have prevented them from resisting the State?”
—Henry David Thoreau (18171862)
“Hostesses who entertain much must make up their parties as ministers make up their cabinets, on grounds other than personal liking.”
—George Eliot [Mary Ann (or Marian)