Old Church Slavonic Grammar - Conjunctions and Particles

Conjunctions and Particles

Conjunctions and particles are not easily separable because they sometimes function as an intensifier, and sometimes as a conjunction.

    <li>a, ali "but" - (proclitic), setting two parts of a statement in opposition
  • ako, jako, ěko "that, so that, how, when, as" - (proclitic) introducing indirect or direct speech; highly context-dependent
  • ašte "if, whether" - (proclitic) a conditional particle, also used to generalize relative pronouns
  • bo "for, because" - (enclitic) denoting caustive relationships (i + bo = ibo, u + bo = ubo)
  • da "in order that" - (proclitic) introducing final result
  • i "and; even, too" - (proclitic) connecting clauses or used as an adverb within a clause
  • ide "for, since" - (proclitic)
  • jegda, jegdaže "when, if" - (proclitic)
  • jeda "surely not" - (proclitic), introducing a question expecting a negative answer
  • li "or", li...li "either... or" - (proclitic or enclitic) generally when forming a question; when enclitic, usually a direct question, when proclitic, taking the meaning "or"
  • ne "not", ne...ni "neither... nor" - ne generally occurs before the negated item, occurring usually once in the main clause, but ni may occur several times in the same clause
  • "but" - (proclitic) connecting two clauses
  • to "then, so" - (proclitic) correlative to ašte
  • že "on the other hand, or, and" - (enclitic) the commonest particle functioning both as an intensifier and a conjunction; often bound to pronouns and adverbs (jakože, nikъto že)

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Bulgarski - Other Features - Conjunctions and Particles
... "But" In Bulgarian, there are several conjunctions all translating into English as "but", which are all used in distinct situations ... – "you don't say!", "really!" Vocative particles Bulgarian has several abstract particles which are used to strengthen a statement ... The particles are strictly informal and can even be considered rude by some people and in some situations ...

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