In control theory, **observability** is a measure for how well internal states of a system can be inferred by knowledge of its external outputs. The observability and controllability of a system are mathematical duals. The concept of observability was introduced by American-Hungarian scientist Rudolf E. Kalman for linear dynamic systems.

Read more about Observability: Definition, Continuous Time-varying System, Nonlinear Case, Static Systems and General Topological Spaces

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