Morse Code

Morse code is a method of transmitting text information as a series of on-off tones, lights, or clicks that can be directly understood by a skilled listener or observer without special equipment. The International Morse Code encodes the ISO basic Latin alphabet, some extra Latin letters, the Arabic numerals and a small set of punctuation and procedural signals as standardized sequences of short and long signals called "dots" and "dashes", or "dits" and "dahs". Because many non-English natural languages use more than the 26 Roman letters, extensions to the Morse alphabet exist for those languages.

Each character (letter or numeral) is represented by a unique sequence of dots and dashes. The duration of a dash is three times the duration of a dot. Each dot or dash is followed by a short silence, equal to the dot duration. The letters of a word are separated by a space equal to three dots (one dash), and two words are separated by a space equal to seven dots. The dot duration is the basic unit of time measurement in code transmission. For efficiency, the length of each character in Morse is approximately inversely proportional to its frequency of occurrence in English. Thus, the most common letter in English, the letter "E," has the shortest code, a single dot.

Morse code is most popular among amateur radio operators, although it is no longer required for licensing in most countries, including the US. Pilots and air traffic controllers usually need only a cursory understanding. Aeronautical navigational aids, such as VORs and NDBs, constantly identify in Morse code. Compared to voice, Morse code is less sensitive to poor signal conditions, yet still comprehensible to humans without a decoding device. Morse is therefore a useful alternative to synthesized speech for sending automated data to skilled listeners on voice channels. Many amateur radio repeaters, for example, identify with Morse, even though they are used for voice communications.

For emergency signals, Morse code can be sent by way of improvised sources that can be easily "keyed" on and off, making it one of the simplest and most versatile methods of telecommunication. The most common distress signal is SOS or three dots, three dashes and three dots, internationally recognised by treaty.

Read more about Morse Code:  Development and History, User Proficiency, International Morse Code, Representation, Timing and Speeds, Link Budget Issues, Learning Methods, Letters, Numbers, Punctuation, Alternative Display of More Common Characters in International Morse Code

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List Of Amateur Radio Frequency Bands In India - Licence Categories - Grade II
... and in addition a demonstration of proficiency in sending and receiving Morse code at five words a minute ... The licence allows the user to make radiotelegraphy (Morse code) and radiotelephony transmission in 11 frequency bands ... of proof that 100 contacts have been made with other amateur operators using CW (Morse code) ...
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... Morse code is a variable length telegraphy code, which traditionally uses a series of long and short pulses to encode characters ... gaps between the pulses to provide separation between letters and words, as the letter codes do not have the "prefix property" ... Morse code can be represented as a binary stream by allowing each bit to represent one unit of time ...
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... The low bandwidth of the code signal, due in part to low information transmission rate, allowed very selective filters to be used in the receiver which blocked out much of the atmospheric noise that would otherwise ... radiotelegraphy because like the telegraph, it worked by means of a simple switch to transmit Morse code ... In military communications and amateur radio, the terms "CW" and "Morse code" are often used interchangeably, despite the distinctions between the two ...
... It is also known as Korean Morse equivalents ... SKATS maps the Hangul characters through Korean Morse code to the same codes in Morse code and back to their equivalents in the Latin script ... If a Korean Morse code operator were to transmit a Korean message in Morse, and an English speaking Morse code operator heard the message, what he would write down is SKATS ...
Alternative Display of More Common Characters in International Morse Code
... See also Huffman coding Some methods of teaching or learning Morse code use the dichotomic search table below ...

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