Memory - Disorders


Much of the current knowledge of memory has come from studying memory disorders, particularly amnesia. Loss of memory is known as amnesia. Amnesia can result from extensive damage to: (a) the regions of the medial temporal lobe, such as the hippocampus, dentate gyrus, subiculum, amygdala, the parahippocampal, entorhinal, and perirhinal cortices or the (b) midline diencephalic region, specifically the dorsomedial nucleus of the thalamus and the mammillary bodies of the hypothalamus. There are many sorts of amnesia, and by studying their different forms, it has become possible to observe apparent defects in individual sub-systems of the brain's memory systems, and thus hypothesize their function in the normally working brain. Other neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease can also affect memory and cognition. Hyperthymesia, or hyperthymesic syndrome, is a disorder which affects an individual's autobiographical memory, essentially meaning that they cannot forget small details that otherwise would not be stored. Korsakoff's syndrome, also known as Korsakoff's psychosis, amnesic-confabulatory syndrome, is an organic brain disease that adversely affects memory.

While not a disorder, a common temporary failure of word retrieval from memory is the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon. Sufferers of Anomic aphasia (also called Nominal aphasia or Anomia), however, do experience the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon on an ongoing basis due to damage to the frontal and parietal lobes of the brain.

Read more about this topic:  Memory

Other articles related to "disorders":

National Eating Disorders Association - Eating Disorders - Possible Causes - Biology
... Walter Kaye, a board member of the National Eating Disorders Association…cautions that eating disorders are much more complicated than researchers first thought…the disorders can't be blamed solely on environmental ...
... Idanpramine is a drug used for functional gastrointestinal disorders ... Drugs for functional gastrointestinal disorders (A03) Drugs for functional bowel disorders Antimuscarinics Tertiary amino group Oxyphencyclimine Camylofin Mebeverine ...
Specific Developmental Disorder - DSM Taxonomy
... In the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III), SDD was opposed to the pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) ... In the fourth edition of the DSM specific developmental disorders are no longer grouped together ... Instead they are reclassified as communication disorders, learning disorders, and motor skills disorders ...
Eating Attitudes Test
... self-report measure of symptoms and concerns characteristic of eating disorders ... factors in the development and maintenance of eating disorders A 1982 publication by Garner and colleagues described a 26-item refinement of the original test ... non-clinical as well as a clinical setting not specifically focused on eating disorders ...
National Eating Disorders Association - History
... In 2001, Eating Disorders Awareness Prevention (EDAP) and American Anorexia Bulimia Association (AABA) merged to form the National Eating Disorders Association (NEDA) ... At the time, EDAP and AABA were "the largest and longest standing eating disorders prevention and advocacy organizations in the world." ...

Famous quotes containing the word disorders:

    It no longer makes sense to speak of “feeding problems” or “sleep problems” or “negative behavior” is if they were distinct categories, but to speak of “problems of development” and to search for the meaning of feeding and sleep disturbances or behavior disorders in the developmental phase which has produced them.
    Selma H. Fraiberg (20th century)

    A car can massage organs which no masseur can reach. It is the one remedy for the disorders of the great sympathetic nervous system.
    Jean Cocteau (1889–1963)