Melanoma i/ˌmɛləˈnoʊmə/ (from Greek μέλας — melas, "dark") is a malignant tumor of melanocytes. Melanocytes are cells that produce the dark pigment, melanin, which is responsible for the color of skin. They predominantly occur in skin, but are also found in other parts of the body, including the bowel, oral cavity and the eye (see uveal melanoma). Melanoma can originate in any part of the body that contains melanocytes.

Melanoma is less common than other skin cancers. However, it is much more dangerous if it is not found early. It causes the majority (75%) of deaths related to skin cancer. Worldwide, doctors diagnose about 160,000 new cases of melanoma yearly. It is more common in women than in men. In women, the most common site is the legs and melanomas in men are most common on the back. It is particularly common among Caucasians, especially northwestern Europeans living in sunny climates. There are high rates of incidence in Oceania, Northern America, Europe, southern Africa, and Latin America, with a paradoxical decrease in southern Italy and Sicily. This geographic pattern reflects the primary cause, ultraviolet light (UV) exposure crossed with the amount of skin pigmentation in the population.

According to a WHO report, about 48,000 melanoma related deaths occur worldwide per year.

The treatment includes surgical removal of the tumor. If melanoma is found early, while it is still small and thin, and if it is completely removed, then the chance of cure is high. The likelihood of the melanoma coming back or spreading depends on how deeply it has gone into the layers of the skin. For melanomas that come back or spread, treatments include chemo- and immunotherapy, or radiation therapy.

Read more about Melanoma:  Signs and Symptoms, Cause, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Prevention, Treatment, Prognosis, Epidemiology, History, Research

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Cancer Vax - Products
... While the company eventually had several drugs in their pipeline focused on melanoma, colon cancer, lung cancer, solid tumors, and ophthalmic disease, their lead candidate Canvaxin was focused on ... Canvaxin was a vaccine based treatment for melanoma, and was an immunotherapeutic ...
Lidia Rudnicka - Biography - Melanoma Prevention
... prevention and early detection of melanoma (with dermoscopy and videodermoscopy) ... The campaign "Stop-Melanoma", based on highly successful Australian experience, is an ongoing program which started in 2004 ...
Spitz Nevus
... "Epithelioid and spindle-cell nevus," "Benign juvenile melanoma", and "Spitz's juvenile melanoma") is a benign melanocytic nevus, a type of skin lesion, affecting the epidermis and dermis ... as spindle and epithelioid cell nevus and juvenile melanoma ... The latter term is generally no longer used as it is misleading it is not a melanoma, it is a benign lesion it can also occur in adults, not only in children ...
Melanoma - Research - Surveillance Methods
... The Screening and Surveillance of Ultrasound in Melanoma trial (SUNMEL) is evaluating ultrasound as an alternative to invasive surgical methods ...
... Excessive cysteinyldopa in plasma and urine has been linked to malignant melanoma ... in the plasma and urine of patients with malignant melanoma ... It is therefore used in the diagnosis of melanoma and for the detection of postoperative metastases ...