- Aquatic ecosystems
- Acoustic ecology – Acoustic ecology, sometimes called ecoacoustics or soundscape studies, is the relationship, mediated through sound, between living beings and their environment. Acoustic ecology studies started in the late 1960s with R.
- Algal bloom – An algal bloom is a rapid increase or accumulation in the population of algae in an aquatic system.
- Anoxic waters – Anoxic waters are areas of sea water or fresh water that are depleted of dissolved oxygen.
- Aquatic adaptation – Several animal groups have undergone aquatic adaptation, going from being purely terrestrial animals to living at least part of the time in water.
- Aquatic animals
- Aquatic biodiversity research – Aquatic biodiversity research is the field of scientific research studying marine and freshwater biological diversity
- Aquatic biomonitoring – Aquatic biomonitoring is the science of inferring the ecological condition of rivers, lakes, streams, and wetlands by examining the organisms that live there.
- Aquatic insects – Aquatic insects live some portion of their life cycle in the water.
- Aquatic layers – Any water in a sea or lake that is not close to the bottom or near to the shore can be said to be in the pelagic zone.
- Aquatic plants Aquatic plant
- Aquatic predation – Aquatic predation presents a special difficulty as compared to predation on land, because the density of water is about the same as that of the prey, so that the prey tends to be pushed away.
- Aquatic respiration – Aquatic respiration is the process whereby an aquatic animal obtains oxygen from water.
- Aquatic science – Aquatic Science is the multidisciplinary study of aquatic systems, encompassing both freshwater and marine systems.
- Aquatic toxicology – Aquatic toxicology is the study of the effects of manufactured chemicals and other anthropogenic and natural materials and activities on aquatic organisms at various levels of organization, from subcellular through individual organisms to communities and ecosystems.
- Benthos – Benthos refers to species living in or on the ocean bottom and represent the greatest proportion of marine species.
- Bioluminescence – Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light by a living organism.
- Biomass – Biomass, in ecology, is the mass of living biological organisms in a given area or ecosystem at a given time.
- Cascade effect – An ecological cascade effect is a series of secondary extinctions that is triggered by the primary extinction of a key species in an ecosystem.
- Colored dissolved organic matter – Colored dissolved organic matter is the optically measurable component of the dissolved organic matter in water.
- Dead zone – Dead zones are hypoxic areas in the world's oceans, the observed incidences of which have been increasing since oceanographers began noting them in the 1970s.
- Ecohydrology – Ecohydrology ";, hydōr, "water"; and, -logia is an interdisciplinary field studying the interactions between water and ecosystems.
- Eutrophication – Eutrophication or more precisely hypertrophication, is the ecosystem response to the addition of artificial or natural substances, such as nitrates and phosphates, through fertilizers or sewage, to an aquatic system.
- Fisheries science – Fisheries science is the academic discipline of managing and understanding fisheries.
- Food chain – A food chain is somewhat a linear sequence of links in a food web starting from a trophic species that eats no other species in the web and ends at a trophic species that is eaten by no other species in the web.
- Food web – A food web depicts feeding connections in an ecological community.
- Hydrobiology – Hydrobiology is the science of life and life processes in water.
- Hypoxia – Hypoxia, or oxygen depletion, is a phenomenon that occurs in aquatic environments as dissolved oxygen becomes reduced in concentration to a point where it becomes detrimental to aquatic organisms living in the system.
- Microbial ecology – Microbial ecology is the ecology of microorganisms: their relationship with one another and with their environment.
- Microbial food web – The microbial food web refers the combined trophic interactions among microbes in aquatic environments.
- Microbial loop – a trophic pathway in the marine microbial food web where dissolved organic carbon is returned to higher trophic levels via the incorporation into bacterial biomass, and coupled with the classic food chain formed by phytoplankton-zooplankton-nekton.
- Nekton – Nekton refers to the aggregate of actively swimming aquatic organisms in a body of water able to move independently of water currents.
- Neuston – Neuston is the collective term for the organisms that float on the top of water or live right under the surface .
- Particle – In marine and freshwater ecology, a particle is a small object.
- Photic zone – The photic zone or euphotic zone is the depth of the water in a lake or ocean that is exposed to sufficient sunlight for photosynthesis to occur.
- Phytoplankton – Phytoplankton are the autotrophic component of the plankton community.
- Plankton – Plankton are any drifting organisms that inhabit the pelagic zone of oceans, seas, or bodies of fresh water.
- Productivity – In ecology, productivity or production refers to the rate of generation of biomass in an ecosystem.
- Ramsar Convention – The Ramsar Convention is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands,
- Schooling – In biology, any group of fish that stay together for social reasons are shoaling, and if the group is swimming in the same direction in a coordinated manner, they are schooling .
- Sediment trap – Sediment traps are instruments used in oceanography to measure the quantity of sinking particulate organic material in aquatic systems, usually oceans.
- Siltation – Siltation is the pollution of water by fine particulate terrestrial clastic material, with a particle size dominated by silt or clay.
- Spawning – Spawn refers to the eggs and sperm released or deposited, usually into water, by aquatic animals.
- Substrate – Stream substrate is the material that rests at the bottom of a stream.
- Thermal pollution – Thermal pollution is the degradation of water quality by any process that changes ambient water temperature.
- Trophic level –
- Underwater camouflage and mimicry – Underwater camouflage and mimicry is a technique of crypsis—avoidance of observation—that allows an otherwise visible aquatic organism to remain indiscernible from the surrounding environment, or pretend to be something else by mimicking another organism or object.
- Water column – A water column is a conceptual column of water from surface to bottom sediments.
- Zooplankton – Zooplankton are heterotrophic plankton.
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Famous quotes containing the word general:
“Can a woman become a genius of the first class? Nobody can know unless women in general shall have equal opportunity with men in education, in vocational choice, and in social welcome of their best intellectual work for a number of generations.”
—Anna Garlin Spencer (18511931)
“What is written without effort is in general read without pleasure.”
—Samuel Johnson (17091784)
“It has been the struggle between privileged men who have managed to get hold of the levers of power and the people in general with their vague and changing aspirations for equality, for justice, for some kind of gentler brotherhood and peace, which has kept that balance of forces we call our system of government in equilibrium.”
—John Dos Passos (18961970)