Jewish Communities

Jewish Communities

Judaism (from the Latin Iudaismus, derived from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, and ultimately from the Hebrew יהודה, Yehudah, "Judah"; in Hebrew: יהדות, Yahadut, the distinctive characteristics of the Judean ethnos) is the religion, philosophy and way of life of the Jewish people. A monotheistic religion originating in the Hebrew Bible (also known as the Tanakh) and explored in later texts such as the Talmud, Judaism is considered by religious Jews to be the expression of the covenantal relationship God established with the Children of Israel. Rabbinic Judaism holds that God revealed his laws and commandments to Moses on Mount Sinai in the form of both the Written and Oral Torah. Historically, this assertion was challenged by various groups such as the Sadducees and Hellenistic Judaism during the Second Temple period; the Karaites and Sabbateans during the early and later medieval period; and among segments of the modern reform movements. Liberal movements in modern times such as Humanistic Judaism may be nontheistic.

Judaism claims a historical continuity spanning more than 3,000 years. Of the major world religions, Judaism is considered one of the oldest monotheistic religions. The Hebrews / Israelites were already referred to as "Jews" in later books of the Tanakh such as the Book of Esther, with the term Jews replacing the title "Children of Israel". Judaism's texts, traditions and values strongly influenced later Abrahamic religions, including Christianity, Islam and the Baha'i Faith. Many aspects of Judaism have also directly or indirectly influenced secular Western ethics and civil law.

Jews are an ethnoreligious group and include those born Jewish and converts to Judaism. In 2010, the world Jewish population was estimated at 13.4 million, or roughly 0.2% of the total world population. About 42% of all Jews reside in Israel and about 42% reside in the United States and Canada, with most of the remainder living in Europe. The largest Jewish religious movements are Orthodox Judaism (Haredi Judaism and Modern Orthodox Judaism), Conservative Judaism and Reform Judaism. A major source of difference between these groups is their approach to Jewish law. Orthodox Judaism maintains that the Torah and Jewish law are divine in origin, eternal and unalterable, and that they should be strictly followed. Conservative and Reform Judaism are more liberal, with Conservative Judaism generally promoting a more "traditional" interpretation of Judaism's requirements than Reform Judaism. A typical Reform position is that Jewish law should be viewed as a set of general guidelines rather than as a set of restrictions and obligations whose observance is required of all Jews. Historically, special courts enforced Jewish law; today, these courts still exist but the practice of Judaism is mostly voluntary. Authority on theological and legal matters is not vested in any one person or organization, but in the sacred texts and rabbis and scholars who interpret them.

Read more about Jewish Communities:  Jewish Religious Texts

Other articles related to "jewish, jewish communities":

Czech Jews
... are predominantly Ashkenazic Jews, and the current Jewish population is only a fraction of the First republic's Jewish population ... There are ten small Jewish communities all around the country (seven in Bohemia and three in Moravia) ... The umbrella organisation for the Jewish communities in the country is the Federation of Jewish Communities (FŽO) ...
Classical Anatolia - Roman Period - Judaism and Christianity in Anatolia During Roman Times - Judaism
... Further information Hellenistic Judaism Jewish legend describes Jewish dispersion from as early as the Book of Genesis and the time of Abraham ... Additional clues to the size of the Jewish influence in the area were provided by Cicero, who noted that a fellow Roman governor had halted the tribute sent to Jerusalem by Jews ... The Romans provided some protection to Jewish communities after they occupied Anatolia in 188 BC ...
Jewish Communities - Judaism and Other Religions - Syncretic Movements Incorporating Judaism
... evangelical Christian theology with elements of Jewish terminology and ritual ... The movement states that Jesus is the Jewish Messiah, and generally that he is part of the Trinity, and salvation is only achieved through acceptance of Jesus as one's ... Some members of the movement are ethnically Jewish, and some of them argue that Messianic Judaism is a sect of Judaism ...
Serbian Jews - Jews in Vojvodina
... The Jewish communities of Vojvodina flourished, and by the end of the 19th Century the region had nearly 40 Jewish communities ... The Jewish communities of Vojvodina, as in the rest of Serbia, were largely destroyed in the Holocaust, particularly in Banat, which was under direct German occupation, and in Bačka, which ... In 1942 raid, the Hungarian troops killed many Jewish and Serb civilians in Bačka ...
Mystic River Jewish Communities Project
... The Mystic River Jewish Communities Project is a non profit organization dedicated to preserving the heritage of the Mystic River Jewish communities of ...

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