Java - Demography


With a combined population of 136.5 million in the 2010 census (including Madura's 3.6 million), and at current growth rates, will reach 141 million combined in early 2013, is the most populous island in the world and is home to 57% of Indonesia's population. At 1,062 people per km² in 2010 it is also one of the most densely-populated parts of the world. Though little population growth is registered in Central Java, East Java, these regions have higher birth rates than one would assume due to mass emigration to the Western side of Java (mostly), but also Sumatra, Borneo, Bali, and Papua. Approximately 45% of the population of Indonesia is ethnically Javanese., Sundanese make a large portion of Java's population as well.

The dense Western third of the island (West Java, Banten, and DKI Jakarta) has an even higher population density exceeding 1,400 per km2 and is taking up the lion's share of population growth of Java. It is home to 3 metropolitan areas, Greater Jakarta (with outlying areas of Greater Serang and Greater Sukabumi), Greater Bandung, and Greater Cirebon.

Province or Special Region Capital Area
Census of 2000
Census of 2010
Density in 2010
Banten Serang 9,160.7 7.1 8,098,277 10,644,030 1,162
DKI Jakarta - 664 0.5 8,361,079 9,588,198 14,440
West Java Bandung 34,817 27.1 35,724,093 43,021,826 1,235
Central Java Semarang 32,801 25.3 31,223,258 32,380,687 995
Yogyakarta Yogyakarta 3,133 2.4 3,121,045 3,452,390 1,084
East Java Surabaya 47,922 37.3 34,765,993 37,476,011 782
Region Administered as Java Jakarta 128,297 100% 121,293,745 136,563,142 1,064
Madura Island of East Java
- 4,250 3.3 3,230,300 3,621,646 852
Java Island1)
- 124,047 96.7 118,063,445 132,941,496 1,071

1) Other islands are included in this figure but are very small in population and area

2) Land area of provinces updated in 2010 Census figures, areas may be different than past results.

From the 1970s to the fall of the Suharto regime in 1998, the Indonesian government ran transmigration programs aimed at resettling the population of Java on other less-populated islands of Indonesia. This program has met with mixed results; sometimes causing conflicts between the locals and the recently arrived settlers. However, Java's share of the nation's population has fallen steadily.

Jakarta and its outskirts being the dominant metropolis is also home to people from all over the nation. East Java is also home to ethnic Balinese, as well as large numbers of Madurans due to their historic poverty.

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