Inoculation

Inoculation is the placement of something that will grow or reproduce, and is most commonly used in respect of the introduction of a serum, vaccine, or antigenic substance into the body of a human or animal, especially to produce or boost immunity to a specific disease. It can also be used to refer to the communication of a disease to a living organism by transferring its causative agent into the organism, the implanting of microorganisms or infectious material into a culture medium such as a brewers vat or a petri dish, or the placement of microorganisms or viruses at a site where infection is possible. The verb to inoculate is from Middle English inoculaten, which meant "to graft a scion" (a plant part to be grafted onto another plant); which in turn is from Latin inoculare, past participle inoculat-.

This article covers variolation, inoculation as a method of purposefully infecting a person with smallpox (Variola) in a controlled manner so as to minimise the severity of the infection and also to induce immunity against further infection. See vaccination for post-variolation methods of safeguarding as if by inoculation by administering weakened or dead pathogens to a healthy person or animal with the intent of conferring immunity against a targeted form of a related disease agent.

Today the terms inoculation, vaccination and immunization are used more or less interchangeably and popularly refer to the process of artificial induction of immunity against various infectious diseases. The microorganism used in an inoculation is called the inoculant or inoculum.

Read more about Inoculation:  Importation To The West, Mechanism, Supplanted By Vaccination

Other articles related to "inoculation":

Primary Inoculation Tuberculosis
... Primary inoculation tuberculosis (also known as "Cutaneous primary complex," "Primary tuberculous complex," and "Tuberculous chancre") is a skin condition that develops at the site of inoculation of tubercle ...
List Of Chinese Inventions - Shang and Later - I
... Inoculation, treatment of smallpox Joseph Needham and Robert Temple state that a case of inoculation for smallpox may have existed in the late 10th century during the Song Dynasty (960–12 ... Quan (1499–1582) wrote the first clear reference to smallpox inoculation in his Douzhen xinfa (痘疹心法) of 1549 ... The process of inoculation was also vividly described by Yu Chang in his Yuyi cao (寓意草), or Notes on My Judgment published in 1643, and Zhang Yan in his Zhongdou xinshu (種痘新書), or New ...
Marker Assisted Selection - Situations That Are Favorable For Molecular Marker Selection
... of the target gene(s), as in the case of breeding for disease and pest resistance (where inoculation with the disease or subjection to pests would otherwise be required) ... This advantage derives from the errors due to unreliable inoculation methods and the fact that field inoculation with the pathogen is not allowed in many areas for ...
Zabdiel Boylston - Inoculation
... During a smallpox outbreak in 1721 in Boston, he inoculated about 248 people by applying pus from a smallpox sore to a small wound on the subjects, a method said to have been previously used in Africa ... Initially, he used the method on two slaves and his own son ...
Inoculation - Supplanted By Vaccination
... of his experiments and thus introduced the far superior and safer method of inoculation with the cowpox virus, a non-fatal virus that also induced immunity to smallpox ... His efforts led to smallpox inoculation falling into disuse and eventually being banned in England in 1840 ...