Compost ( /ˈkɒmpɒst/ or /ˈkɒmpoʊst/) is organic matter that has been decomposed and recycled as a fertilizer and soil amendment. Compost is a key ingredient in organic farming. At the simplest level, the process of composting simply requires making a heap of wetted organic matter (leaves, "green" food waste) and waiting for the materials to break down into humus after a period of weeks or months. Modern, methodical composting is a multi-step, closely monitored process with measured inputs of water, air and carbon- and nitrogen-rich materials. The decomposition process is aided by shredding the plant matter, adding water and ensuring proper aeration by regularly turning the mixture. Worms and fungi further break up the material. Aerobic bacteria manage the chemical process by converting the inputs into heat, carbon dioxide and ammonium. The ammonium is further converted by bacteria into plant-nourishing nitrites and nitrates through the process of nitrification.
Compost can be rich in nutrients. It is used in gardens, landscaping, horticulture, and agriculture. The compost itself is beneficial for the land in many ways, including as a soil conditioner, a fertilizer, addition of vital humus or humic acids, and as a natural pesticide for soil. In ecosystems, compost is useful for erosion control, land and stream reclamation, wetland construction, and as landfill cover (see compost uses). Organic ingredients intended for composting can alternatively be used to generate biogas through anaerobic digestion. Anaerobic digestion is fast overtaking composting in some parts of the world including central Europe as a primary means of downcycling waste organic matter.
Other articles related to "industrial composting, composting":
... Industrial composting systems are increasingly being installed as a waste management alternative to landfills, along with other advanced waste processing systems ... of mixed waste streams combined with anaerobic digestion or in-vessel composting is called mechanical biological treatment, and are increasingly being used in developed countries due to ... Vermicomposting, also known as vermiculture, is used for medium-scale on-site institutional composting, such as for food waste from universities and shopping malls selected either as a more ...
... most bioplastics will only degrade in the tightly controlled conditions of industrial composting units ... EN13432, defines how quickly and to what extent a plastic must be degraded under industrial composting conditions for it to be called compostable ... However, it is designed only for the aggressive conditions of industrial composting units at or above 140F ...
... It is not designed to be compostable in industrial composting facilities according to ASTM D6400 or EN13432, but it can be composted in an in-vessel process ... This short time is necessary for compostable plastics because industrial composting has a short timescale, and is not the same as degradation in the environment ... to be biodegradable but it will not pass the composting standards, due to the 180 day limit in ASTM D6400 ...
Famous quotes containing the word industrial:
“Nearly all the Escapists in the long past have managed their own budget and their social relations so unsuccessfully that I wouldnt want them for my landlords, or my bankers, or my neighbors. They were valuable, like powerful stimulants, only when they were left out of the social and industrial routine.”
—Willa Cather (18761947)