The mineral graphite /ˈɡræfaɪt/ is an allotrope of carbon. It was named by Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1789 from the Ancient Greek γράφω (graphō), "to draw/write", for its use in pencils, where it is commonly called lead (not to be confused with the metallic element lead). Unlike diamond (another carbon allotrope), graphite is an electrical conductor, a semimetal. It is, consequently, useful in such applications as arc lamp electrodes. Graphite is the most stable form of carbon under standard conditions. Therefore, it is used in thermochemistry as the standard state for defining the heat of formation of carbon compounds. Graphite may be considered the highest grade of coal, just above anthracite and alternatively called meta-anthracite, although it is not normally used as fuel because it is difficult to ignite.

There are three principal types of natural graphite, each occurring in different types of ore deposit:

  1. Crystalline flake graphite (or flake graphite for short) occurs as isolated, flat, plate-like particles with hexagonal edges if unbroken and when broken the edges can be irregular or angular;
  2. Amorphous graphite occurs as fine particles and is the result of thermal metamorphism of coal, the last stage of coalification, and is sometimes called meta-anthracite. Very fine flake graphite is sometimes called amorphous in the trade;
  3. Lump graphite (also called vein graphite) occurs in fissure veins or fractures and appears as massive platy intergrowths of fibrous or acicular crystalline aggregates, and is probably hydrothermal in origin.

Highly ordered pyrolytic graphite or highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) refers to graphite with an angular spread between the graphite sheets of less than 1°. This highest-quality synthetic form is used in scientific research, in particular, as a standard for scanner calibration of scanning probe microscope. The name "graphite fiber" is also sometimes used to refer to carbon fiber or carbon fiber-reinforced polymer.

Read more about Graphite:  Occurrence, History of Natural Graphite Use, Uses of Natural Graphite, Graphite Mining, Beneficiation, and Milling, Graphite Recycling

Other articles related to "graphite, graphites":

Ancuabe District - Economy
... There are also large reserves of graphite which were exploited commercially from 1994 to 2000 ... Graphites de Ancuabe Ltda ... to about 1 million tonnes of ore with a content of 10% graphite ...
Graphite Lined Stamp - Graphite
... The term graphite refers to the substance Naphthadag or Deflocculated Acheson's Graphite which was graphite in a solution of naphtha ... This graphite substance went under the brand name dag which was a registered trademark of Acheson Colloids Ltd ...
Graphite Recycling
... The most common way graphite is recycled occurs when synthetic graphite electrodes are either manufactured and pieces are cut off or lathe turnings ... This is crushed and sized, and the resulting graphite powder is mostly used to raise the carbon content of molten steel ... Graphite-containing refractories are sometimes also recycled, but often not because of their graphite the largest-volume items, such as carbon-magnesite bricks that contain only 15–25 ...
Mining In North Korea - Graphite Mining
... Jeongchon Mine is a graphite mine located in Jeongchon-gun, Hamgyeongnam-do and the ore is found in strike length of 700m ... It is an inter-Korean project with South Korea getting a share of 50% of the extracted graphite ...
Seathwaite, Allerdale - History
... Newhouse Gill, which descends from Grey Knotts, is a graphite mine which was opened after the discovery of graphite there in 1555 ... The extracted graphite was eventually used to supply the Derwent Cumberland Pencil Company factory in Keswick ... The commercial mining of the unusual solid form of graphite found near the hamlet of Seathwaite ceased around 1891 when veins of the solid graphite became harder to find ...