Facial Motor Nucleus - Additional Images

Additional Images

  • The cranial nerve nuclei schematically represented; dorsal view. Motor nuclei in red; sensory in blue.

  • Nuclei of origin of cranial motor nerves schematically represented; lateral view.

  • Cross section of the lower pons showing the facial motor nucleus and part of the root of the facial nerve.

Human brain, rhombencephalon, metencephalon: pons (TA A14.1.05.101–604, GA 9.785)
Dorsal/
(tegmentum)
Surface Cerebellopontine angle · Superior medullary velum · Sulcus limitans · Medial eminence · Facial colliculus
White: Sensory/ascending

Trapezoid body/VIII · Trigeminal lemniscus (Dorsal trigeminal tract, Ventral trigeminal tract) · Medial lemniscus · Lateral lemniscus

MLF, III, IV and VI: Vestibulo-oculomotor fibers

Anterior trigeminothalamic tract · Central tegmental tract
White: Motor/descending

ICP (Vestibulocerebellar tract)

MLF, III, IV and VI: Vestibulospinal tract (Medial vestibulospinal tract, Lateral vestibulospinal tract)
Grey: Cranial nuclei

afferent: GSA: Principal V/Spinal V · VIII-c (Dorsal, Anterior)/VIII-v (Superior)

efferent: SVE: Motor V · VII · GSE: VI · GVE: VII: Superior salivary nucleus
Other grey Apneustic center · Pneumotaxic center (Medial parabrachial nucleus) · Lateral parabrachial nucleus · Superior olivary nucleus · Caerulean nucleus
Ventral/
(base)
Grey Pontine nuclei
White: Motor/descending

Corticospinal tract · Corticobulbar tract · Corticopontine fibers

MCP (Pontocerebellar fibers)
Surface Basilar sulcus
Other grey: Raphe/
reticular
Reticular formation (Caudal, Oral, Tegmental, Paramedian) · Raphe nuclei (Median)

M: CNS

anat (n/s/m/p/4/e/b/d/c/a/f/l/g)/phys/devp

noco (m/d/e/h/v/s)/cong/tumr, sysi/epon, injr

proc, drug (N1A/2AB/C/3/4/7A/B/C/D)

Nerves of head and neck: the cranial nerves and nuclei (TA A14.2.01, GA 9.855)
olfactory (AON->I)
  • olfactory bulb
  • olfactory tract
optic (LGN->II)
  • optic chiasm
  • optic tract
oculomotor
(ON, EWN->III)
  • superior branch
    • parasympathetic root of ciliary ganglion/ciliary ganglion
  • inferior branch
trochlear (TN->IV)
  • no significant branches
trigeminal
(PSN, TSN, MN, TMN->V)
  • trigeminal ganglion
  • ophthalmic
  • maxillary
  • mandibular
abducens (AN->VI)
  • no significant branches
facial (FMN, SN, SSN->VII)
near origin
  • nervus intermedius
  • geniculate
inside
facial canal
  • greater petrosal
    • pterygopalatine ganglion
  • nerve to the stapedius
  • chorda tympani
    • lingual nerve
    • submandibular ganglion
at stylomastoid
foramen
  • posterior auricular
  • suprahyoid
    • digastric
    • stylohyoid
  • parotid plexus
    • temporal
    • zygomatic
    • buccal
    • mandibular
    • cervical
vestibulocochlear
(VN, CN->VIII)
  • cochlear
    • striae medullares
    • lateral lemniscus
  • vestibular
    • Scarpa's ganglion
glossopharyngeal
(NA, ISN, SN->IX)
before jugular fossa
  • ganglia
    • superior
    • inferior
after jugular fossa
  • tympanic
    • tympanic plexus
    • lesser petrosal
    • otic ganglion
  • stylopharyngeal branch
  • pharyngeal branches
  • tonsillar branches
  • lingual branches
  • carotid sinus
vagus
(NA, DNVN, SN->X)
before jugular fossa
  • ganglia
    • superior
    • inferior
after jugular fossa
  • meningeal branch
  • auricular branch
neck
  • pharyngeal branch
    • pharyngeal plexus
  • superior laryngeal
    • external
    • internal
  • recurrent laryngeal (inferior)
  • superior cervical cardiac
thorax
  • inferior cardiac
  • pulmonary
  • vagal trunks
    • anterior
    • posterior
abdomen
  • celiac
  • renal
  • hepatic
  • anterior gastric
  • posterior gastric
accessory (NA, SAN->XI)
  • cranial
  • spinal
hypoglossal (HN->XII)
  • lingual branches

M: PNS

anat (h/r/t/c/b/l/s/a)/phys (r)/devp/prot/nttr/nttm/ntrp

noco/auto/cong/tumr, sysi/epon, injr

proc, drug (N1B)

Brain and spinal cord: neural tracts and fasciculi
Sensory/
ascending
PCML

1°: Pacinian corpuscle/Meissner's corpuscle → Gracile fasciculus/Cuneate fasciculus → Gracile nucleus/Cuneate nucleus

2°: → sensory decussation/arcuate fibers (Posterior external arcuate fibers, Internal arcuate fibers) → Medial lemniscus/Trigeminal lemniscus → Thalamus (VPL, VPM)

3°: → Posterior limb of internal capsule → Postcentral gyrus
Anterolateral/
pain
Fast/lateral

1° (Free nerve ending → A delta fiber) → 2° (Anterior white commissure → Lateral and Anterior Spinothalamic tract → Spinal lemniscus → VPL of Thalamus) → 3° (Postcentral gyrus) → 4° (Posterior parietal cortex)

2° (Spinotectal tract → Superior colliculus of Midbrain tectum)
Slow/medial 1° (Group C nerve fiber → Spinoreticular tract → Reticular formation) → 2° (MD of Thalamus) → 3° (Cingulate cortex)
Motor/
descending
Pyramidal flexion: Primary motor cortex → Posterior limb of internal capsule → Decussation of pyramids → Corticospinal tract (Lateral, Anterior) → Neuromuscular junction
Extrapyramidal

flexion: Primary motor cortex → Genu of internal capsule → Corticobulbar tractFacial motor nucleus → Facial muscles

flexion: Red nucleus → Rubrospinal tract

extension: Vestibulocerebellum → Vestibular nuclei → Vestibulospinal tract

extension: Vestibulocerebellum → Reticular formation → Reticulospinal tract

Midbrain tectum → Tectospinal tract → muscles of neck
Basal ganglia

direct: 1° (Motor cortex → Striatum) → 2° (GPi) → 3° (Lenticular fasciculus/Ansa lenticularis → Thalamic fasciculus → VL of Thalamus) → 4° (Thalamocortical radiations → Supplementary motor area) → 5° (Motor cortex)

indirect: 1° (Motor cortex → Striatum) → 2° (GPe) → 3° (Subthalamic fasciculus → Subthalamic nucleus) → 4° (Subthalamic fasciculus → GPi) → 5° (Lenticular fasciculus/Ansa lenticularis → Thalamic fasciculus → VL of Thalamus) → 6° (Thalamocortical radiations → Supplementary motor area) → 7° (Motor cortex)

nigrostriatal pathway: Pars compacta → Striatum
Cerebellar
Afferent

Vestibular nucleus → Vestibulocerebellar tract → ICP → Cerebellum → Granule cell

Pontine nuclei → Pontocerebellar fibers → MCP → Deep cerebellar nuclei → Granule cell

Inferior olivary nucleus → Olivocerebellar tract → ICP → Hemisphere → Purkinje cell → Deep cerebellar nuclei
Efferent

Dentate nucleus in Lateral hemisphere/pontocerebellum → SCP → Dentatothalamic tract → Thalamus (VL) → Motor cortex

Interposed nucleus in Intermediate hemisphere/spinocerebellum → SCP → Reticular formation, or → Cerebellothalamic tract → Red nucleus → Thalamus (VL) → Motor cortex

Fastigial nucleus in Flocculonodular lobe/vestibulocerebellum → Vestibulocerebellar tract → Vestibular nucleus
Bidirectional:
Spinocerebellar
Unc. prop.

lower limb → 1° (muscle spindles → DRG) → 2° (Posterior thoracic nucleus → Dorsal/posterior spinocerebellar tract → ICP → Cerebellar vermis)

upper limb → 1° (muscle spindles → DRG) → 2° (Accessory cuneate nucleus → Cuneocerebellar tract → ICP → Anterior lobe of cerebellum)
Reflex arc

lower limb → 1° (Golgi tendon organ) → 2° (Ventral/anterior spinocerebellar tract→ SCP → Cerebellar vermis)

upper limb → 1° (Golgi tendon organ) → 2° (Rostral spinocerebellar tract → ICP → Cerebellum)

M: CNS

anat (n/s/m/p/4/e/b/d/c/a/f/l/g)/phys/devp

noco (m/d/e/h/v/s)/cong/tumr, sysi/epon, injr

proc, drug (N1A/2AB/C/3/4/7A/B/C/D)

M: PNS

anat (h/r/t/c/b/l/s/a)/phys (r)/devp/prot/nttr/nttm/ntrp

noco/auto/cong/tumr, sysi/epon, injr

proc, drug (N1B)

Read more about this topic:  Facial Motor Nucleus

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