DNA Replication

DNA replication is a biological process that occurs in all living organisms and copies their DNA; it is the basis for biological inheritance. The process starts when one double-stranded DNA molecule produces two identical copies of the molecule. The cell cycle (mitosis) also pertains to the DNA replication/reproduction process. The cell cycle includes interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Each strand of the original double-stranded DNA molecule serves as template for the production of the complementary strand, a process referred to as semiconservative replication. Cellular proofreading and error toe-checking mechanisms ensure near perfect fidelity for DNA replication.

In a cell, DNA replication begins at specific locations in the genome, called "origins". Unwinding of DNA at the origin, and synthesis of new strands, forms a replication fork. In addition to DNA polymerase, the enzyme that synthesizes the new DNA by adding nucleotides matched to the template strand, a number of other proteins are associated with the fork and assist in the initiation and continuation of DNA synthesis.

DNA replication can also be performed in vitro (artificially, outside a cell). DNA polymerases, isolated from cells, and artificial DNA primers are used to initiate DNA synthesis at known sequences in a template molecule. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a common laboratory technique, employs such artificial synthesis in a cyclic manner to amplify a specific target DNA fragment from a pool of DNA.

Read more about DNA Replication:  DNA Structure, DNA Polymerase, Replication Process, Polymerase Chain Reaction

Other articles related to "dna replication, dna, replication":

Subcellular - Self-replication
... DNA replication, or the process of duplicating a cell's genome, always happens when a cell divides through mitosis or binary fission ... In meiosis, the DNA is replicated only once, while the cell divides twice ... DNA replication only occurs before meiosis I ...
48121 GeneCards POLA2 Gene Gene Ontology Molecular function • molecular_function • DNA binding • DNA-directed DNA polymerase activity • protein heterodimerization activity Cellular component ...
List Of RNAs
... RNAs involved in post-transcriptional modification or DNA replication Type Abbr ... MRP RNase MRP rRNA maturation, DNA replication Eukaryotes Y RNA RNA processing, DNA replication Animals Telomerase RNA Telomere synthesis Most eukaryotes ... to parasites, probably by targeting their DNA Bacteria and archaea Long noncoding RNA Long ncRNA Various Eukaryotes MicroRNA miRNA Gene regulation Most eukaryotes ...
... DNA replication licensing factor MCM8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MCM8 gene ... that are essential for the initiation of eukaryotic genome replication ... protein complex formed by the MCM proteins is a key component of the pre-replication complex (pre_RC) and may be involved in the formation of replication forks ...
DNA Replication - Polymerase Chain Reaction
... Researchers commonly replicate DNA in vitro using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ... PCR uses a pair of primers to span a target region in template DNA, and then polymerizes partner strands in each direction from these primers using a thermostable DNA polymerase ... multiple cycles produces amplification of the targeted DNA region ...

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