**More About Closed Sets**

In point set topology, a set *A* is closed if it contains all its boundary points.

The notion of closed set is defined above in terms of open sets, a concept that makes sense for topological spaces, as well as for other spaces that carry topological structures, such as metric spaces, differentiable manifolds, uniform spaces, and gauge spaces.

An alternative characterization of closed sets is available via sequences and nets. A subset *A* of a topological space *X* is closed in *X* if and only if every limit of every net of elements of *A* also belongs to *A*. In a first-countable space (such as a metric space), it is enough to consider only convergent sequences, instead of all nets. One value of this characterisation is that it may be used as a definition in the context of convergence spaces, which are more general than topological spaces. Notice that this characterisation also depends on the surrounding space *X*, because whether or not a sequence or net converges in *X* depends on what points are present in *X*.

Whether a set is closed depends on the space in which it is embedded. However, the compact Hausdorff spaces are "absolutely closed", in the sense that, if you embed a compact Hausdorff space *K* in an arbitrary Hausdorff space *X*, then *K* will always be a closed subset of *X*; the "surrounding space" does not matter here. Stone-Čech compactification, a process that turns a completely regular Hausdorff space into a compact Hausdorff space, may be described as adjoining limits of certain nonconvergent nets to the space.

Furthermore, every closed subset of a compact space is compact, and every compact subspace of a Hausdorff space is closed.

Closed sets also give a useful characterization of compactness: a topological space X is compact if and only if every collection of nonempty closed subsets of X with empty intersection admits a finite subcollection with empty intersection.

A topological space X is disconnected if there exist disjoint, nonempty, closed subsets A and B of X whose union is X. Furthermore, X is totally disconnected if it has an open basis consisting of closed sets.

Read more about this topic: Closed Set

### Famous quotes containing the words sets and/or closed:

“The poem has a social effect of some kind whether or not the poet wills it to have. It has kinetic force, it *sets* in motion ... [ellipsis in source] elements in the reader that would otherwise be stagnant.”

—Denise Levertov (b. 1923)

“A *closed* mouth catches no flies.”

—Miguel De Cervantes (1547–1616)