Chloroplasts

Some articles on chloroplasts, chloroplast:

Co RR Hypothesis - The Problem - Why Do Mitochondria and Chloroplasts Have Their Own Genetic Systems?
... Why do mitochondria and chloroplasts require their own separate genetic systems, when other organelles that share the same cytoplasm, such as peroxisomes and lysosomes, do not? The question is not trivial, because ... clear, and the hope that the nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes would provide the answer has proved to be unfounded ... the proteins made in mitochondria and chloroplasts should be made there rather than in the cytosol ...
Co RR Hypothesis - The Problem - Chloroplasts and Mitochondria
... Chloroplasts and mitochondria are energy-converting organelles in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells ... Chloroplasts in plant cells perform photosynthesis the capture and conversion of the energy of sunlight ... In addition to these key reactions of bioenergetics, chloroplasts and mitochondria each contain specialized and discrete genetic systems ...
Archaeplastida - Endosymbiosis
... Because the ancestral archaeplastidan is hypothesized to have acquired its chloroplasts directly by engulfing cyanobacteria, the event is known as a primary endosymbiosis (as reflected in the ... includes the presence of a double membrane around the chloroplasts one membrane belonged to the bacterium, and the other to the eukaryote that captured it ... Over time, many genes from the chloroplast have been transferred to the nucleus of the host cell ...
Heterokont - Chloroplasts
... Heterokont algae are chromists with chloroplasts surrounded by four membranes, which are counted from the outermost to the innermost membrane ... The first membrane is continuous with the host's chloroplast endoplasmic reticulum, or cER ... reticulum and the primary endosymbiont or chloroplast, which represents the next two membranes, within which the thylakoid membranes are found ...
Cytohet
... cells exists in cytoplasmic organelles, namely the chloroplasts (only in plant cells) and the mitochondria (in all eukaryotic cells) ... in the mitochondria code for respiration-related proteins, and most of the genes in the chloroplasts code for photosynthesis-related proteins ... copies in each cell each cell contains numerous mitochondria and/or chloroplasts, and each such organelle contains multiple copies of its chromosome ...