Chloral Hydrate

Chloral hydrate is an unapproved, Schedule IV sedative and hypnotic drug as well as a chemical reagent and precursor. The name chloral hydrate indicates that it is formed from chloral (trichloroacetaldehyde) by the addition of one molecule of water. Its chemical formula is C2H3Cl3O2.

It was discovered through the chlorination of ethanol in 1832 by Justus von Liebig in Gießen. Its sedative properties were first published in 1869 and subsequently, because of its easy synthesis, its use was widespread. It was widely used recreationally and misprescribed in the late 19th century. Chloral hydrate is soluble in both water and alcohol, readily forming concentrated solutions. A solution of chloral hydrate in alcohol called "knockout drops" was used to prepare a Mickey Finn. More reputable uses of chloral hydrate include its use as a clearing agent for chitin and fibers and as a key ingredient in Hoyer's mounting medium, which is used to prepare permanent or semipermanent microscope slides of small organisms, histological sections, and chromosome squashes.

It is, together with chloroform, a minor side-product of the chlorination of water when organic residues are present in the water, though concentrations rarely exceed 5 micrograms per litre (µg/L).

Chloral hydrate has not been approved by the FDA in the United States or the EMA in the European Union for any medical indication and is on the list of unapproved drugs that is still prescribed by clinicians. Usage of this drug as a sedative or hypnotic may be very dangerous given the lack of clinical trials.

Read more about Chloral HydrateProduction, Adverse Effects, Overdosage, Pharmacology, Legal Status, Hoyer's Mounting Medium

Other articles related to "chloral hydrate, chloral":

... Chloral hydrate is an organic compound with the formula C2H3Cl3O2 ... It is derived from chloral (trichloroacetaldehyde) by the addition of one equivalent of water ... Chloral hydrate is soluble in both water and alcohol, readily forming concentrated solutions ...
Aquachloral - Uses - Building Block in Organic Synthesis
... Chloral hydrate is a starting point for the synthesis of other organic compounds ... It is the starting material for the production of chloral, which is produced by the distillation of a mixture of chloral hydrate and sulfuric acid, which ... In this synthesis, chloral hydrate reacts with aniline and hydroxylamine to give a condensation product which cyclicizes in sulfuric acid to give the target compound ...
Chloral Hydrate - Hoyer's Mounting Medium
... Chloral hydrate is also an ingredient used for Hoyer's solution, a mounting medium for microscopic observation of diverse organisms such as bryophytes, ferns ... for making Hoyer's is dissolving gum arabic (30.0 g) in water (50.0 mL), then adding chloral hydrate (200.0 g), and then finally adding glycerol (16.0 mL) ... Chloral hydrate reportedly does not effectively clear larger specimens, or arthropods that are more heavily sclerotized (e.g ...
Aquachloral - Notable Uses
... the communal drinking of Flavor Aid poisoned with Valium, chloral hydrate, cyanide, and Phenergan ... Richard Realf (1832–1878) killed himself with a combination of chloral hydrate and laudanum ... Jennie Bosschieter (1882–1900) who was murdered with chloral hydrate in Paterson, New Jersey on 12 October 1900 ...