Enzymatic browning is a chemical process, involving polyphenol oxidase, catechol oxidase and other enzymes that create melanins and benzoquinone from natural phenols, resulting in a brown color. Enzymatic browning generally requires exposure to oxygen, thus the browning that occurs when an apple, for example, is cut.
Enzymatic browning can be beneficial for:
- Developing flavor in tea
- Developing color and flavor in dried fruit such as figs and raisins.
Enzymatic browning is often detrimental to:
- Fresh fruit and vegetables, including apples, potatoes and bananas
- Seafood such as shrimp
A variety of techniques exist for preventing enzymatic browning, each exploiting a different aspect of the biochemical process.
- Lemon juice and other acids lower the pH and remove the copper cofactor necessary for the responsible enzymes to function
- Blanching to denature enzymes and destroy responsible reactants
- Low temperatures can also prevent enzymatic browning by reducing rate of reaction.
- Inert gas, like nitrogen, prevent necessary oxygen from reacting
- Chemicals such as sodium bisulfite and citrates
Read more about this topic: Browning (food Process)
Famous quotes containing the word browning:
“And all night long we have not stirred,
And yet God has not said a word!”
—Robert Browning (18121889)