Zamorin (Samoothiri; Malayalam: സാമൂതിരി, Portuguese: Samorim, Dutch: Samorijn) of Calicut is the hereditary royal title used by the Hindu rulers of the medieval Kingdom of Calicut on Malabar Coast. The Zamorins ruled for almost six centuries, between c. 12th and 18th century AD based at the city of Calicut, the one of most important trading centre in South India. At the zenith in the 15th century, the kingdom covered almost all of present day northern and central regions of Kerala state.

It was after the disintegration of the Later Chera Kingdom in early 12th century, the Zamorins (originally Eradis of Nediyirippu Swarūpam) became completely independent and became a powerful economic and naval force. The relative absence of intra-family quarrels and splits like other Nair royalties was one of the factors in the dramatic success of the Zamorins. They had good trade relations with the Muslim-Arabs and Chinese, the primary spice traders on the Malabar Coast in the Middle Ages. The Kunhali Marakkars, the famous Muslim admirals, were the naval chiefs of the Zamorins. The Zamorins held most of the other important trading ports on the across Malabar Coast. The control over these ports provided the Zamorin a vast income of foreign money. They fought numerous battles with their local neighbors, prominently with Valluvanad, Palghat, Cannanore and Cochin, for supremacy over the ports and the fertile banks of the River Nila. The wars with an alliance of Valluvanad and Cochin is related to the famous Mamankam festivals.

The Portuguese trader and navigator Vasco da Gama visited the Calicut in 1498, opening the sailing route directly from Europe to India. But later in the history, the Zamorins turned out to be the worst rivals of the Portuguese on the Malabar coast. By 18th century all the petty states of Kerala had been absorbed or subordinated by the three big states of Calicut, Travancore and Cochin. In 1766 Kingdom of Mysore under the leadership of Hyder Ali defeated the Zamorin and annexed the Calicut.

The government at Calicut was an autocracy, limited by the power of the semi-independent vassal chiefs, perpetually in revolt, and by the priestly power of the Nambudiris. The Saamoothiri initiated the annual Revathi Pattathanam at the Tali Siva temple in Calicut. The present head of Zamorin family is His Highness P. K. S. Raja of Puthiya Kovilakam (Thiruvannur).

Read more about ZamorinEtymology, Capitals, Succession Line, Dominions, Governance, Military, Coinage

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Dharma Raja - Succession and Initial Career
... From 1755 AD, the Zamorin of Calicut Kingdom, was in possession of the major portions of Cochin ... Varma had promised help against the Zamorin by signing a treaty of alliance in 1756 with Cochin, he took no steps to help ... withdrew their contingents from the field when the Zamorin promised to give back to them 'Chetwai' which he had conquered from them, on his way to Cochin ...
Guptan - Origin - Legend
... used to be conducted by Samoothiri(Zamorin) kings after swearing on ceremony of each Eralppad- second in command - to establish their control over the region.The last KOTTICHEZHUNNALLATH was ... Finally they have reached to Walluvanad area and approached Samoothiri (Zamorin) of Kozhikkode (Calicut)for land ... They had the same test with Zamorin ...
Thirunavaya Wars - Governance
... male member traced the female becomes the next Zamorin ... The Zamorin was assisted in the work of government by four hereditary Chief Ministers called Sarvadhi Karyakkar (the Mangattachan-the Prime Minister, the Tinayancheri Elayatu, the Dharmottu ... The Karyakkar were appointed and removed by the Zamorin ...
Thirunavaya Wars - History - Mysore Occupation and Settlement Negotiations
... edged closer to the outer reaches of the city of Calicut, the Zamorin sent most of his relatives to safe haven in Ponnani and to avoid the humiliation of surrender ... the suicide of the king, some members of the Zamorin family rebelled against the occupiers ... Though Mysore conferred on the Zamorin prince a jagir (vast area of tax-free land), after taking charge he continued the revolt ...
Marakkars of Kotakkal
... Mohammed Marakkar was accorded the title Kunjali by the ruling Zamorin thus cementing the families relationship with the Zamorins until the reign of the 4th Kunjali by when a wedge was driven into this relationship by ... Between 1500 and 1600 the Zamorin’s naval operations were overseen by the Kunjalis ... of a Nair were the main tools the Portuguese used to drive the wedge between the Zamorin and the Kunjali) and got her married to a senior Muslim sea captain ...