What are electrons?

Some articles on electrons, electron:

History - The Aufbau Principle in The Old Quantum Theory
... that “ The orbitals of lower energy are filled in first with the electrons and only then the orbitals of high energy are filled ... of quantum mechanics to the properties of electrons, and explained chemical properties in physical terms ... Each added electron is subject to the electric field created by the positive charge of the atomic nucleus and the negative charge of other electrons that are bound ...
Exchange Interactions Between Localized Electron Magnetic Moments - Effects of Exchange
... If Jab is positive the exchange energy favors electrons with parallel spins this is a primary cause of ferromagnetism in materials in which the electrons ... If Jab is negative, the interaction favors electrons with antiparallel spins, potentially causing antiferromagnetism ... Indeed, in general, the direct magnetic interaction between a pair of electrons (due to their electron magnetic moments) is negligibly small compared to this ...
Betatron
... of Illinois in 1940 to accelerate electrons, but the concepts ultimately originate from Rolf Widerøe, whose development of an induction accelerator failed due to the lack of transverse focusing ... An alternating current in the primary coils accelerates electrons in the vacuum around a circular path ... was the first important machine for producing high energy electrons ...
Exchange Force - Exchange Interaction and Quantum State Symmetry
... used as a synonym for the exchange interaction, between electrons which arises from a combination of the identity of particles, exchange symmetry, and the electrostatic force ... concept of exchange interaction, any two electrons, for example, in the universe are considered indistinguishable particles, and so according to quantum mechanics in 3 ... Thus, it so happens that all electrons are fermions, since they have spin 1/2 ...
Cyclobutadiene
... and antiaromatic by Hückel's rule, because its ring has 4 π-electrons, and 4 is not twice an odd number ... by the metal atom providing 2 more electrons to the system ... longer than normal (1.464 vs expected 1.34) The pi electron energy of cyclobutadiene is higher than that of its open-chain counterpart, 1,3-butadiene, and it is ...

Famous quotes containing the word electrons:

    Such is the art of writing as Dreiser understands it and practices it—an endless piling up of minutiae, an almost ferocious tracking down of ions, electrons and molecules, an unshakable determination to tell it all. One is amazed by the mole-like diligence of the man, and no less by his exasperating disregard for the ease of his readers.
    —H.L. (Henry Lewis)