Tree breeding is the application of genetic principles to the genetic improvement and management of forest trees. In contrast to the selective breeding of livestock, arable crops, and horticultural flowers over the last few centuries, the breeding of trees, with the exception of fruit trees, is a relatively recent occurrence.
A typical forest tree breeding program starts with selection of superior phenotypes (plus trees) in a natural or planted forest. This application of mass selection improves the mean performance of the forest. Offspring is obtained from selected trees and grown in test plantations that act as genetic trials. Based on such tests the best genotypes among the parents can be selected. Selected trees are typically multiplied by either seeds or grafting and seed orchards are established when the preferred output is improved seed. Alternatively, the best genotypes can be directly propagated by cuttings or in-vitro methods and used directly in clonal plantations. The first system is frequently used in pines and other conifers, while the second is typical in some broadleaves (poplars, eucalypts and others). The objectives of a tree breeding program range from yield improvement and adaptation to particular conditions, to pest-resistance, wood characters etc. Currently, tree breeding is gaining new interest under the threat of Global Warming, and it is taking advantage of the fast development in plant genetics and genomics.
... Tree breeders make efforts to get their operation efficient by optimising tree breeding ... Scientists develop tools aimed at improvement of the efficiency of tree breeding programmes ... Optimising is usually carried out at the following levels breeding strategy (appropriate intensity of breeding, breeding population structure and size, plan for maintenance of genetic ...
Famous quotes containing the words breeding and/or tree:
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