The transfer DNA (abbreviated T-DNA) is the transferred DNA of the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid of some species of bacteria such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes. It derives its name from the fact that the bacterium transfers this DNA fragment into the host plant's nuclear DNA genome. The T-DNA is bordered by 25-base-pair repeats on each end. Transfer is initiated at the left border and terminated at the right border and requires the vir genes of the Ti plasmid.
The bacterial T-DNA is about 20,000 base pairs long and contains genes that code for enzymes synthesizing opines and phytohormones. By transferring the T-DNA into the plant genome, the bacterium essentially reprograms the plant cells to grow into a tumor and produce a unique food source for the bacteria. The synthesis of the plant hormones auxin and cytokinin enables the plant cell to grow uncontrollably, thus forming the crown gall tumors typically induced by Agrobacterium infection. The opines are amino acid derivatives used by the bacterium as a source of carbon and energy.
Other articles related to "transfer dna, transfer, dna":
... that enables researchers to efficiently transfer DNA-fragments between plasmids using a proprietary set of recombination sequences, the "Gateway att ... Gateway Cloning Technique allows transfer of DNA fragments between different cloning vectors while maintaining the reading frame ... The system requires the initial insertion of a DNA fragment into a plasmid with two flanking recombination sequences called “att L 1” and “att L 2 ...
... The same procedure of T-DNA transfer can be used to disrupt genes via insertional mutagenesis ... Not only does the inserted T-DNA sequence create a mutation but it also 'tags' the affected gene, thus allowing for its isolation ...
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