Tourette Syndrome

Tourette syndrome (also called Tourette's syndrome, Tourette's disorder, Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, GTS or, more commonly, simply Tourette's or TS) is an inherited neuropsychiatric disorder with onset in childhood, characterized by multiple physical (motor) tics and at least one vocal (phonic) tic. These tics characteristically wax and wane, can be suppressed temporarily, and are preceded by a premonitory urge. Tourette's is defined as part of a spectrum of tic disorders, which includes transient and chronic tics.

Tourette's was once considered a rare and bizarre syndrome, most often associated with the exclamation of obscene words or socially inappropriate and derogatory remarks (coprolalia), but this symptom is present in only a small minority of people with Tourette's. Tourette's is no longer considered a rare condition, but it is not always correctly identified because most cases are mild and the severity of tics decreases for most children as they pass through adolescence. Between 0.4% and 3.8% of children ages 5 to 18 may have Tourette's; the prevalence of transient and chronic tics in school-age children is higher, with the more common tics of eye blinking, coughing, throat clearing, sniffing, and facial movements. Extreme Tourette's in adulthood is a rarity, and Tourette's does not adversely affect intelligence or life expectancy.

Genetic and environmental factors play a role in the etiology of Tourette's, but the exact causes are unknown. In most cases, medication is unnecessary. There is no effective treatment for every case of tics, but certain medications and therapies can help when their use is warranted. Education is an important part of any treatment plan, and explanation and reassurance alone are often sufficient treatment. Comorbid conditions (co-occurring diagnoses other than Tourette's) such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) are present in many patients seen in tertiary specialty clinics. These other conditions often cause more functional impairment to the individual than the tics that are the hallmark of Tourette's, hence it is important to correctly identify comorbid conditions and treat them.

The eponym was bestowed by Jean-Martin Charcot (1825–1893) on behalf of his resident, Georges Albert Édouard Brutus Gilles de la Tourette (1859–1904), a French physician and neurologist, who published an account of nine patients with Tourette's in 1885.

Read more about Tourette SyndromeClassification, Characteristics, Causes, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Screening, Management, Prognosis, Epidemiology, History and Research Directions, Society and Culture

Other articles related to "tourette syndrome, tourette, syndrome":

Samuel Johnson's Health - Posthumous Diagnosis - Tourette Syndrome
... and it is widely accepted that Johnson had Tourette syndrome (TS), a condition unknown during Johnson's lifetime ... movements the signs described by Boswell and others suggest that Johnson had Tourette syndrome (TS) ... From that list, he determined it was possible that Johnson was affected by Tourette syndrome as described by Georges Gilles de la Tourette ...
Tourette Syndrome - Society and Culture
... Not everyone with Tourette's wants treatment or a "cure", especially if that means they may "lose" something else in the process ... Researchers Leckman and Cohen, and former Tourette Syndrome Association national board member Kathryn Taubert, believe that there may be latent advantages ... to support the clinical lore that children with "TS-only" (Tourette's in the absence of comorbid conditions) are unusually gifted neuropsychological studies have identified advantages in children with TS ...
Neuropsychiatry - The Case For The Rapprochement of Neurology and Psychiatry - Hitherto Psychiatric Disorders Have Organic Basis
... A good example of this is Tourette syndrome, which Ferenczi (1921), although never having seen a patient with Tourette syndrome, suggested was the symbolic expression of masturbation ... efficacy of neuroleptic drugs in attenuating symptoms (Shapiro, Shapiro and Wayne, 1973) the syndrome has gained pathophysiological support (e.g ... have a strong neurogenetic basis similar to Tourette Syndrome.This trend can be seen for many hitherto traditionally psychiatric disorders (see table) and is argued to ...
Sociological And Cultural Aspects Of Tourette Syndrome - Notable Individuals - Speculation About Notable Individuals
... Although some authors have speculated that Mozart had Tourette syndrome, the evidence for this hypothesis is lacking ... book Medical and Musical Byways of Mozartiana that Mozart had Tourette syndrome ... of Mozart's diagnoses and concluded that "Tourette’s syndrome is an inventive but implausible diagnosis in the medical history of Mozart" ...
Sociological And Cultural Aspects Of Tourette Syndrome
... Sociological and cultural aspects of Tourette syndrome (also Tourette's syndrome, Tourette's or TS), include legal, advocacy and health insurance issues, awareness of ... Tourette syndrome is an inherited neurological disorder with onset in childhood, characterized by the presence of motor and phonic tics ... Tourette's is a misunderstood and stigmatizing condition, often mentioned in the popular media ...

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