Tiruchirappalli a ( pronunciation ; formerly called Trichinopoly in English, nicknamed Tiruchi or Trichy) is a city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and the administrative headquarters of Tiruchirappalli District. It is the fourth largest municipal corporation and the fourth largest urban agglomeration in the state.

The city is believed to be of significant antiquity and has been ruled, at different times, by the Early Cholas, Early Pandyas, Pallavas, Medieval Cholas, Later Cholas, Later Pandyas, Delhi Sultanate, Madurai Sultanate, Vijayanagar Empire, Nayak Dynasty, the Carnatic state and the British. The archaeologically important town of Uraiyur which served as the capital of the Early Cholas is a suburb of Tiruchirappalli. Tiruchirappalli played a critical role in the Carnatic Wars between the British and the French East India companies. The city has a number of historical monuments, the Rockfort, Ranganathaswamy temple at Srirangam and the Jambukeswarar temple at Thiruvanaikaval being the most prominent among them.

Tiruchirappalli is an important industrial and educational hub of central Tamil Nadu. The factories of Ordnance Factories Board such as Ordnance Factory Tiruchirappalli (OFT) and Heavy Alloy Penetrator Project (HAPP), Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL) and Golden Rock Railway Workshops are located in Tiruchirappalli. The National Institutes of Technology (NIT), the Bharathidasan Institute of Management ( BIM), Indian Institute of Management (IIM), Indian Institute of Information Technology(IIIT), Bharathidasan University (BDU) and Anna University of Technology have their campuses in the city. Tiruuchirappalli is internationally popular for a brand of cheroot known as the Trichinopoly cigar which was exported in large quantities to the United Kingdom in the 19th century.

Tiruchirappalli is administered by a municipal corporation established as per the Tiruchirappalli City Municipal Corporation Act 1994. As of 2001, the city covered an area of 146.70 square kilometres and had a population of 752,066. Tiruchirappalli is well-connected by road, rail and air. There are passenger flight services to destinations in South-East Asia and the Middle East.

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