To minimize loading, attenuator probes (e.g., 10× probes) are used. A typical probe uses a 9 megohm series resistor shunted by a low-value capacitor to make an RC compensated divider with the cable capacitance and scope input. The RC time constants are adjusted to match. For example, the 9 megohm series resistor is shunted by a 12.2 pF capacitor for a time constant of 110 microseconds. The cable capacitance of 90 pF in parallel with the scope input of 20 pF and 1 megohm (total capacitance 110 pF) also gives a time constant of 110 microseconds. In practice, there will be an adjustment so the operator can precisely match the low frequency time constant (called compensating the probe). Matching the time constants makes the attenuation independent of frequency. At low frequencies (where the resistance of R is much less than the reactance of C), the circuit looks like a resistive divider; at high frequencies (resistance much greater than reactance), the circuit looks like a capacitive divider.
The result is a frequency compensated probe for modest frequencies that presents a load of about 10 megohms shunted by 12 pF. Although such a probe is an improvement, it does not work when the time scale shrinks to several cable transit times (transit time is typically 5 ns). In that time frame, the cable looks like its characteristic impedance, and there will be reflections from the transmission line mismatch at the scope input and the probe that causes ringing. The modern scope probe uses lossy low capacitance transmission lines and sophisticated frequency shaping networks to make the 10× probe perform well at several hundred megahertz. Consequently, there are other adjustments for completing the compensation.
A directly connected test probe (so called 1× probe) puts the unwanted lead capacitance across the circuit under test. For a typical coaxial cable, loading is of the order of 100pF per meter (the length of a typical test lead).
Attenuator probes minimize capacitive loading with an attenuator, but reduce the magnitude of the signal delivered to the instrument. A 10× attenuator will reduce the capacitive load by a factor of about 10. The attenuator must have an accurate ratio over the whole range of frequencies of interest; the input impedance of the instrument becomes part of the attenuator. A DC attenuator with resistive divider is supplemented with capacitors, so that the frequency response is predictable over the range of interest.
The RC time constant matching method works as long as the transit time of the shielded cable is much less than the time scale of interest. That means that the shielded cable can be viewed as a lumped capacitor rather than an inductor. Transit time on a 1 meter cable is about 5 ns. Consequently, these probes will work to a few megahertz, but after that transmission line effects cause trouble.
At high frequencies, the probe impedance will be low.
The most common design inserts a 9 megohm resistor in series with the probe tip. The signal is then transmitted from the probe head to the oscilloscope over a special coaxial cable that is designed to minimize capacitance and ringing. The resistor serves to minimize the loading that the cable capacitance would impose on the DUT. In series with the normal 1 megohm input impedance of the oscilloscope, the 9 megohm resistor creates a 10× voltage divider so such probes are normally known as either low cap(acitance) probes or 10× probes, often printed with the letter X or x instead of the multiplication sign, and usually spoken of as "a times-ten probe".
Because the oscilloscope input has some parasitic capacitance in parallel with the 1 megohm resistance, the 9 megohm resistor must also be bypassed by a capacitor to prevent it from forming a severe RC low-pass filter with the 'scope's parasitic capacitance. The amount of bypass capacitance must be carefully matched with the input capacitance of the oscilloscope so that the capacitors also form a 10× voltage divider. In this way, the probe provides a uniform 10× attenuation from DC (with the attenuation provided by the resistors) to very high AC frequencies (with the attenuation provided by the capacitors).
In the past, the bypass capacitor in the probe head was adjustable (to achieve this 10× attenuation). More modern probe designs use a laser-trimmed thick-film electronic circuit in the head that combines the 9 megohm resistor with a fixed-value bypass capacitor; they then place a small adjustable capacitor in parallel with the oscilloscope's input capacitance. Either way, the probe must be adjusted so that it provides uniform attenuation at all frequencies. This is referred to as compensating the probe. Compensation is usually accomplished by probing a square wave and adjusting the compensating capacitor until the oscilloscope displays the most accurate waveshape. Newer, faster probes have more complex compensation arrangements and may occasionally require further adjustments.
100× passive probes are also available, as are some designs specialized for use at very high voltages (up to 25 kV).
Passive probes usually connect to the oscilloscope using a BNC connector. Most 10× probes are equivalent to a load of about 10-15 pF and 10 megohms on the DUT, with 100× probes loading the circuit less.
Other articles related to "probes, probe":
... Active scope probes use a high-impedance high-frequency amplifier mounted in the probe head, and a screened lead ... Active probes are commonly seen by the circuit under test as a capacitance of 1 picofarad or less in parallel with 1 megohm resistance ... Probes are connected to the oscilloscope with a cable matching the characteristic impedance of the oscilloscope input ...
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