Tang Dynasty

The Tang Dynasty (Chinese: 唐朝; pinyin: Táng Cháo; ; Middle Chinese: Dâng) (June 18, 618 – June 1, 907) was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period. It was founded by the Li (李) family, who seized power during the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire. The dynasty was interrupted briefly by the Second Zhou Dynasty (October 8, 690 – March 3, 705) when Empress Wu Zetian seized the throne, becoming the only Chinese empress regnant, ruling in her own right.

The Tang Dynasty, with its capital at Chang'an (present-day Xi'an), which at the time was the most populous city in the world, is generally regarded as a high point in Chinese civilization—equal to, or surpassing that of, the earlier Han Dynasty—a golden age of cosmopolitan culture. Its territory, acquired through the military campaigns of its early rulers, rivalled that of the Han Dynasty. In two censuses of the 7th and 8th centuries, the Tang records estimated the population by number of registered households at about 50 million people. Yet, even when the central government was breaking down and unable to compile an accurate census of the population in the 9th century, it is estimated that the population had grown by then to about 80 million people. With its large population base, the dynasty was able to raise professional and conscripted armies of hundreds of thousands of troops to contend with nomadic powers in dominating Inner Asia and the lucrative trade routes along the Silk Road. Various kingdoms and states paid tribute to the Tang court, while the Tang also conquered or subdued several regions which it indirectly controlled through a protectorate system. Besides political hegemony, the Tang also exerted a powerful cultural influence over neighboring states such as those in Korea, Japan, and Vietnam.

The Tang Dynasty was largely a period of progress and stability, except during the An Lushan Rebellion and the decline of central authority in the later half of the dynasty. Like the previous Sui Dynasty, the Tang Dynasty maintained a civil service system by drafting officials through standardized examinations and recommendations to office. This civil order was undermined by the rise of regional military governors known as jiedushi during the 9th century. Chinese culture flourished and further matured during the Tang era; it is considered the greatest age for Chinese poetry. Two of China's most famous poets, Li Bai and Du Fu, belonged to this age, as did many famous painters such as Han Gan, Zhang Xuan, and Zhou Fang. There was a rich variety of historical literature compiled by scholars, as well as encyclopedias and geographical works.

There were many notable innovations during the Tang, including the development of woodblock printing. Buddhism became a major influence in Chinese culture, with native Chinese sects gaining prominence. However, Buddhism would later be persecuted by the state and decline in influence. Although the dynasty and central government were in decline by the 9th century, art and culture continued to flourish. The weakened central government largely withdrew from managing the economy, though the country's mercantile affairs stayed intact and commercial trade continued to thrive regardless.

Read more about Tang Dynasty:  Society and Culture, Historiography

Other articles related to "tang dynasty, dynasty, tang":

Shato and The Tang Dynasty - Later Tang Dynasty
... The son of Li Keyong, Li Cunxu, succeeded in destroying the Later Liang Dynasty in 923, declaring himself the emperor of the “Restored Tang ... In line with claims of restoring the Tang, Li moved the capital from Kaifeng back to Luoyang, where it was during the Tang Dynasty ... The Later Tang controlled more territory than the Later Liang, including the Beijing area, the surrounding Sixteen Prefectures and Shaanxi Province ...
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... See also List of Chinese inventions Development of the banknote began in the Tang Dynasty during the 7th century, with local issues of paper currency ... Its roots were in merchant receipts of deposit during the Tang Dynasty (618–907), as merchants and wholesalers desired to avoid the heavy bulk of copper coinage in large commercial transactions ... Eventually, the Song Dynasty paper money called "jiaozi" originated from these promissory notes ...
Tang Dynasty Poetry
... Tang poetry (traditional Chinese 唐詩 simplified Chinese 唐诗 pinyin Táng shī) refers to poetry written in or around the time of or in the characteristic ... the Quantangshi anthology created under the Kangxi emperor of the Qing Dynasty, there were almost 50,000 Tang poems written by over 2,200 authors ... During the Tang Dynasty, poetry continued to be an important part of social life at all levels of society ...
Tang Dynasty - Historiography
... See also Chinese historiography The first classic work about the Tang is the Book of Tang by Liu Xu (887–946 AD) et al ... This was edited into another history (labelled the New Book of Tang) in order to distinguish it, which was a work by the Song historians Ouyang Xiu (1007–1072 ... of the Song Dynasty (between the years 1044 and 1060) ...
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... To the Tang Dynasty, the Shato served a purpose ... Some claim that they were a part of the Tang dynasty's foreign policy to control and manage other 'border' peoples identified as a threat ... The Tang Chinese refer to such peoples as Western barbarians ...

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