In digital communications, symbol rate (also known as baud or modulation rate) is the number of symbol changes (waveform changes or signalling events) made to the transmission medium per second using a digitally modulated signal or a line code. The Symbol rate is measured in baud (Bd) or symbols/second. In the case of a line code, the symbol rate is the pulse rate in pulses/second. Each symbol can represent or convey one or several bits of data. The symbol rate is related to, but should not be confused with, the gross bitrate expressed in bit/second.
Other articles related to "symbol, symbols, symbol rate, rate":
... In telecommunications and electronics, baud (/ˈbɔːd/, unit symbol "Bd") is synonymous to symbols per second or pulses per second ... It is the unit of symbol rate, also known as baud rate or modulation rate the number of distinct symbol changes (signaling events) made to the transmission medium per second in a digitally ... The baud rate is related to but should not be confused with gross bit rate expressed in bit/s ...
... Chip rate Gross bit rate, also known as data signaling rate or line rate ... which shows (on a graph or 2D oscilloscope image) how a given signal state (a symbol) can represent three or four bits at once ...
... It is the net bitrate (useful information rate excluding error-correcting codes) or maximum throughput divided by the bandwidth in hertz of a communication channel or a data link ... the spectral efficiency may be measured in bit/symbol, which is equivalent to bits per channel use (bpcu), implying that the net bit rate is divided by the symbol rate (modulation rate) or line code pulse rate ... for the attainable modulation efficiency is given by the Nyquist rate or Hartley's law as follows For a signaling alphabet with M alternative symbols, each symbol represents N = log2 M bits ...
Famous quotes containing the words rate and/or symbol:
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—Herman Melville (18191891)
“Mysticism is the mistake of an accidental and individual symbol for an universal one.”
—Ralph Waldo Emerson (18031882)