1930s and Earlier
- Benito Mussolini, former dictator, Prime Minister of Italy and leader of the National Fascist Party was titled Duce, which means Leader.
- Antanas Smetona, the authoritarian president of Lithuania, adopted the title of Tautos Vadas ("Leader of the Nation")
- Adolf Hitler, dictator of Germany from 1933 to 1945, was known as der Führer ("the leader").
- Francisco Franco, dictator of Francoist Spain, assumed the title Caudillo, originally an honorary title for an army leader.
- Birger Furugård, leader of the Swedish National Socialist Party had the title of Riksledaren ("National Leader").
- Ioannis Metaxas, Greek dictator during the 4th of August Regime from 1936 until his death in 1941, assumed the title of Αρχηγός (Archigós, ) meaning "leader".
- Chiang Kai-shek, de facto leader of the Republic of China, was sometimes referred as lingxiu (Chinese: 領袖)
- Joseph Stalin, de facto leader of the Soviet Union, decreed that he was to be officially designated as вождь translit. Vožd (Chief, Leader) from his fiftieth birthday in 1929.
- Rafael Trujillo, Dominican dictator from 1930 to 1961, assumed the nickname of "El Jefe" ("The Boss")
- Subhas Chandra Bose, an Indian revolutionary in the Indian independence movement, was known as Netaji (Respected Leader).
- Engelbert Dollfuss and Kurt Schuschnigg, austrofascist leaders of Austria from 1933 to 1938, were referred to as Bundesführer ("leader federal") as heads of the Patriotic Front.
Famous quotes containing the word earlier:
“The earlier works of a man of genius are always preferred to the newer ones, in order to prove that he is going down instead of up.”
—Victor Hugo (18021885)
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